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      Doping in Sports 

      Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Abuse and the Cardiovascular System

      Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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          Prognostic accuracy of day versus night ambulatory blood pressure: a cohort study.

          Few studies have formally compared the predictive value of the blood pressure at night over and beyond the daytime value. We investigated the prognostic significance of the ambulatory blood pressure during night and day and of the night-to-day blood pressure ratio. We did 24-h blood pressure monitoring in 7458 people (mean age 56.8 years [SD 13.9]) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay, and China. We calculated multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for daytime and night-time blood pressure and the systolic night-to-day ratio, while adjusting for cohort and cardiovascular risk factors. Median follow-up was 9.6 years (5th to 95th percentile 2.5-13.7). Adjusted for daytime blood pressure, night-time blood pressure predicted total (n=983; p or =0.07). Adjusted for the 24-h blood pressure, night-to-day ratio predicted mortality, but not fatal combined with non-fatal events. Antihypertensive drug treatment removed the significant association between cardiovascular events and the daytime blood pressure. Participants with systolic night-to-day ratio value of 1 or more were older, at higher risk of death, and died at an older age than those whose night-to-day ratio was normal (> or =0.80 to <0.90). In contrast to commonly held views, daytime blood pressure adjusted for night-time blood pressure predicts fatal combined with non-fatal cardiovascular events, except in treated patients, in whom antihypertensive drugs might reduce blood pressure during the day, but not at night. The increased mortality in patients with higher night-time than daytime blood pressure probably indicates reverse causality. Our findings support recording the ambulatory blood pressure during the whole day.
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            Coronary artery calcium area by electron-beam computed tomography and coronary atherosclerotic plaque area. A histopathologic correlative study.

            Coronary calcium identified by electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) correlates poorly with luminal atherosclerotic narrowing, but calcium, an intimate part of coronary plaque, may be more directly related to atheromatous plaque area. Thirty-eight coronary arteries from 13 autopsy hearts were dissected, straightened, and scanned with EBCT in 3-mm contiguous increments. Coronary calcium area was defined as one or more pixels with a density > 130 Hounsfield units (0.18 mm2/pixel). Each artery was divided into corresponding 3-mm segments, representative histological sections were stained, and atherosclerotic plaque area per segment (mm2) was quantified. Coronary artery calcium and coronary artery plaque areas were correlated for the hearts as a whole, for individual coronary arteries, and for individual coronary artery segments. The sums of histological plaque areas versus the sums of calcium areas were highly correlated for each heart and for each coronary artery. However, coronary plaque area was on the order of five times greater than calcium area. Furthermore, minimal diffuse segmental coronary plaque could be present despite the absence of coronary calcium detectable by EBCT. This histopathologic study confirms an intimate relation between whole heart, coronary artery, and segmental coronary atherosclerotic plaque area and EBCT coronary calcium area but suggests that there is a threshold value for plaque area below which coronary calcium is either absent or not detectable by this methodology.
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              Community surveillance of coronary heart disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study: methods and initial two years' experience.

              The community surveillance component of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study is designed to estimate patterns and trends of coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence, case fatality, and mortality in four U.S. communities. Community surveillance involves ongoing review of death certificates and hospital discharge records to identify CHD events in community residents aged 35-74 years. Interviews with next of kin and questionnaires completed by physicians and medical examiners or coroners were used to collect information on deaths, and review and abstraction of hospital records were used to collect information on possible fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MIs). Events were classified using standardized criteria. The initial 2-years' experience with case ascertainment and availability of information needed for classification of events is described. Average annual age-adjusted attack rates of definite MI and CHD mortality rates for blacks in two communities and whites in the four communities are presented and compared with rates based on unvalidated hospital discharge data and vital statistics. Age-adjusted rates based on ARIC classification of definite MI were lower than those based on hospital discharge diagnosis code 410 (e.g., 5.60/1000 and 11.50/1000 among Forsyth County white men, respectively). Age-adjusted rates of definite fatal CHD based on ARIC classification were similarly lower than rates based on underlying cause of death code 410; for example, Jackson black men had rates of 2.82/1000 and 4.52/1000 for definite fatal CHD and UCOD 410-414 or 429.2, respectively.

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                September 17 2009
                : 411-457


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