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      Advances in Rehabilitation of Hearing Loss [Working Title] 

      Congenital Aural Atresia: Hearing Rehabilitation by Bone-Anchored Hearing Implant (BAHI)

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      IntechOpen

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          A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation

          According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation.
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            First European multicenter results with a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing implant system: short-term safety and efficacy.

            To investigate safety and efficacy of a new transcutaneous bone conduction hearing implant, over a 3-month follow-up period.
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              Bone conduction experiments in humans - a fluid pathway from bone to ear.

              Animal experiments in this laboratory have led to the suggestion that a major pathway in bone conduction stimulation to the inner ear is via the skull contents (brain and CSF). This hypothesis was now tested in humans. Auditory nerve brainstem evoked responses could be recorded in neonates to bone conduction stimulation over the fontanelle and audiometric responses were obtained in neurosurgical patients with the bone vibrator on the skin over a craniotomy. There were no differences in threshold between these responses and those obtained to bone conduction stimulation over skull bone in the same subjects. Audiometric thresholds in response to bone vibrator stimulation of the eye (a 'natural craniotomy') were no different from those to bone stimulation delivered to several sites on the head. Thus there is no need to vibrate bone in order to obtain 'bone conduction' responses. Bone vibrator thresholds to stimulation at the head region with thinnest bone (temporal) were better than those to stimulation at the forehead region which has much thicker bone, implying that the vibrations penetrate the skull at the site of the vibrator. In addition, the magnitude of vibration (acceleration) measured at various sites around the head in response to bone vibrator stimulation at a fixed point on the forehead generally decreased with distance from the point of vibration. Therefore it seems that the vibrations produced by a bone vibrator at a point on the head are also able to penetrate the skull, setting up audio-frequency pressures in the CSF which spread by fluid communications to the inner ear fluids, exciting the ear.
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                Author and book information

                Book Chapter
                March 25 2020
                10.5772/intechopen.88201
                23d70e81-532a-4fa5-9aa0-f4cabdbd6833
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