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      The Vascular Endothelium I 

      Transport Across the Endothelium: Regulation of Endothelial Permeability

      ,

      Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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          Most cited references 141

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          Regulated portals of entry into the cell.

          The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. 'Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.
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            Caveolin, a protein component of caveolae membrane coats.

            Caveolae have been implicated in the transcytosis of macromolecules across endothelial cells and in the receptor-mediated uptake of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Structural studies indicate that caveolae are decorated on their cytoplasmic surface by a unique array of filaments or strands that form striated coatings. To understand how these nonclathrin-coated pits function, we performed structural analysis of the striated coat and searched for the molecular component(s) of the coat material. The coat cannot be removed by washing with high salt; however, exposure of membranes to cholesterol-binding drugs caused invaginated caveolae to flatten and the striated coat to disassemble. Antibodies directed against a 22 kd substrate for v-src tyrosine kinase in virus-transformed chick embryo fibroblasts decorated the filaments, suggesting that this molecule is a component of the coat. We have named the molecule caveolin. Caveolae represent a third type of coated membrane specialization that is involved in molecular transport.
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              Leakage-resistant blood vessels in mice transgenically overexpressing angiopoietin-1.

              Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are endothelial cell-specific growth factors. Direct comparison of transgenic mice overexpressing these factors in the skin revealed that the VEGF-induced blood vessels were leaky, whereas those induced by Ang1 were nonleaky. Moreover, vessels in Ang1-overexpressing mice were resistant to leaks caused by inflammatory agents. Coexpression of Ang1 and VEGF had an additive effect on angiogenesis but resulted in leakage-resistant vessels typical of Ang1. Ang1 therefore may be useful for reducing microvascular leakage in diseases in which the leakage results from chronic inflammation or elevated VEGF and, in combination with VEGF, for promoting growth of nonleaky vessels.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-3-540-32966-4
                2006
                10.1007/3-540-32967-6
                Book Chapter
                : 107-144
                10.1007/3-540-32967-6_4

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