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      Cell-Penetrating Peptides 

      Comparison of CPP Uptake Methods

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      Humana Press

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          Transducible TAT-HA fusogenic peptide enhances escape of TAT-fusion proteins after lipid raft macropinocytosis.

          The TAT protein transduction domain (PTD) has been used to deliver a wide variety of biologically active cargo for the treatment of multiple preclinical disease models, including cancer and stroke. However, the mechanism of transduction remains unknown. Because of the TAT PTD's strong cell-surface binding, early assumptions regarding cellular uptake suggested a direct penetration mechanism across the lipid bilayer by a temperature- and energy-independent process. Here we show, using a transducible TAT-Cre recombinase reporter assay on live cells, that after an initial ionic cell-surface interaction, TAT-fusion proteins are rapidly internalized by lipid raft-dependent macropinocytosis. Transduction was independent of interleukin-2 receptor/raft-, caveolar- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis. Using this information, we developed a transducible, pH-sensitive, fusogenic dTAT-HA2 peptide that markedly enhanced TAT-Cre escape from macropinosomes. Taken together, these observations provide a scientific basis for the development of new, biologically active, transducible therapeutic molecules.
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            Cell-penetrating peptides. A reevaluation of the mechanism of cellular uptake.

            Cellular uptake of a family of cationic cell-penetrating peptides (examples include Tat peptides and penetratin) have been ascribed in the literature to a mechanism that does not involve endocytosis. In this work we reevaluate the mechanisms of cellular uptake of Tat 48-60 and (Arg)(9). We demonstrate here that cell fixation, even in mild conditions, leads to the artifactual uptake of these peptides. Moreover, we show that flow cytometry analysis cannot be used validly to evaluate cellular uptake unless a step of trypsin digestion of the cell membrane-adsorbed peptide is included in the protocol. Fluorescence microscopy on live unfixed cells shows characteristic endosomal distribution of peptides. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that the kinetics of uptake are similar to the kinetics of endocytosis. Peptide uptake is inhibited by incubation at low temperature and cellular ATP pool depletion. Similar data were obtained for Tat-conjugated peptide nucleic acids. These data are consistent with the involvement of endocytosis in the cellular internalization of cell-penetrating peptides and their conjugates to peptide nucleic acids.
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              Cargo-dependent mode of uptake and bioavailability of TAT-containing proteins and peptides in living cells.

              Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are capable of introducing a wide range of cargoes into living cells. Descriptions of the internalization process vary from energy-independent cell penetration of membranes to endocytic uptake. To elucidate whether the mechanism of entry of CPP constructs might be influenced by the properties of the cargo, we used time lapse confocal microscopy analysis of living mammalian cells to directly compare the uptake of the well-studied CPP TAT fused to a protein (>50 amino acids) or peptide (<50 amino acids) cargo. We also analyzed various constructs for their subcellular distribution and mobility after the internalization event. TAT fusion proteins were taken up largely into cytoplasmic vesicles whereas peptides fused to TAT entered the cell in a rapid manner that was dependent on membrane potential. Despite their accumulation in the nucleolus, photobleaching of TAT fusion peptides revealed their mobility. The bioavailability of internalized TAT peptides was tested and confirmed by the strong inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression of two TAT fusion peptides derived from the tumor suppressor p21(WAF/Cip) and DNA Ligase I measured in living cells.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-1-60761-918-5
                978-1-60761-919-2
                2011
                10.1007/978-1-60761-919-2
                Book Chapter
                2011
                October 12 2010
                : 207-217
                10.1007/978-1-60761-919-2_15

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