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      Biomedical Applications 

      Surface Treatments with Silver and Its Compounds for Biomedical Applications

      Springer US

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          Antimicrobial effect of surgical masks coated with nanoparticles.

          This study assessed the antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles (consisting of a mixture of silver nitrate and titanium dioxide) and nanoparticle-coated facemasks to protect against infectious agents. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 1/128 and 1/512, respectively. The antibacterial activity of nanoparticle-coated masks was quantified according to the procedures of AATCC 100-1999. A 100% reduction in viable E. coli and S. aureus was observed in the coated mask materials after 48 h of incubation. Skin irritation was not observed in any of the volunteers who wore the facemasks. Nanoparticles show promise when applied as a coating to the surface of protective clothing in reducing the risk of transmission of infectious agents.
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            Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter.

            Silver nanoparticles can be coated on common polyurethane (PU) foams by overnight exposure of the foams to nanoparticle solutions. Repeated washing and air-drying yields uniformly coated PU foam, which can be used as a drinking water filter where bacterial contamination of the surface water is a health risk. Nanoparticles are stable on the foam and are not washed away by water. Morphology of the foam was retained after coating. The nanoparticle binding is due to its interaction with the nitrogen atom of the PU. Online tests were conducted with a prototypical water filter. At a flow rate of 0.5 L/min, in which contact time was of the order of a second, the output count of Escherichia coli was nil when the input water had a bacterial load of 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL. Combined with the low cost and effectiveness in its applications, the technology may have large implications to developing countries. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              Silver nanoparticles and polymeric medical devices: a new approach to prevention of infection?

              Implantable devices are major risk factors for hospital-acquired infection. Biomaterials coated with silver oxide or silver alloy have all been used in attempts to reduce infection, in most cases with controversial or disappointing clinical results. We have developed a completely new approach using supercritical carbon dioxide to impregnate silicone with nanoparticulate silver metal. This study aimed to evaluate the impregnated polymer for antimicrobial activity. After impregnation the nature of the impregnation was determined by transmission electron microscopy. Two series of polymer discs were then tested, one washed in deionized water and the other unwashed. In each series, half of the discs were coated with a plasma protein conditioning film. The serial plate transfer test was used as a screen for persisting activity. Bacterial adherence to the polymers and the rate of kill, and effect on planktonic bacteria were measured by chemiluminescence and viable counts. Release rates of silver ions from the polymers in the presence and absence of plasma was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tests for antimicrobial activity under various conditions showed mixed results, explained by the modes and rates of release of silver ions. While washing removed much of the initial activity there was continued release of silver ions. Unexpectedly, this was not blocked by conditioning film. The methodology allows for the first time silver impregnation (as opposed to coating) of medical polymers and promises to lead to an antimicrobial biomaterial whose activity is not restricted by increasing antibiotic resistance.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-1-4614-3124-4
                978-1-4614-3125-1
                2012
                10.1007/978-1-4614-3125-1
                Book Chapter
                2012
                July 10 2012
                : 173-203
                10.1007/978-1-4614-3125-1_5

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