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      Nausea and Vomiting 

      Gastric Electrical Stimulation, Pyloroplasty, Gastrectomy, and Acustimulation for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in the Setting of Gastroparesis

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      Springer International Publishing

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          Most cited references 30

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          Gastric electrical stimulation for medically refractory gastroparesis.

          This study investigated the efficacy of gastric electrical stimulation for the treatment of symptomatic gastroparesis unresponsive to standard medical therapy. Thirty-three patients with chronic gastroparesis (17 diabetic and 16 idiopathic) received continuous high-frequency/low-energy gastric electrical stimulation via electrodes in the muscle wall of the antrum connected to a neurostimulator in an abdominal wall pocket. After implantation, patients were randomized in a double-blind crossover design to stimulation ON or OFF for 1-month periods. The blind was then broken, and all patients were programmed to stimulation ON and evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures were vomiting frequency, preference for ON or OFF, upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, quality of life, gastric emptying, and adverse events. In the double-blind portion of the study, self-reported vomiting frequency was significantly reduced in the ON vs. OFF period (P < 0.05) and this symptomatic improvement was consistent with the significant patient preference (P < 0.05) for the ON vs. OFF period determined before breaking the blind. In the unblinded portion of the study, vomiting frequency decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 6 and 12 months. Scores for symptom severity and quality of life significantly improved (P < 0.05) at 6 and 12 months, whereas gastric emptying was only modestly accelerated. Five patients had their gastric electrical stimulation system explanted or revised because of infection or other complications. High-frequency/low-energy gastric electrical stimulation significantly decreased vomiting frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms and improved quality of life in patients with severe gastroparesis.
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            Treatment of gastroparesis: a multidisciplinary clinical review.

            This clinical review on the treatment of patients with gastroparesis is a consensus document developed by the American Motility Society Task Force on Gastroparesis. It is a multidisciplinary effort with input from gastroenterologists and other specialists who are involved in the care of patients with gastroparesis. To provide practical guidelines for treatment, this document covers results of published research studies in the literature and areas developed by consensus agreement where clinical research trials remain lacking in the field of gastroparesis.
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              Gastric electrical stimulation with Enterra therapy improves symptoms from diabetic gastroparesis in a prospective study.

              Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) treats refractory gastroparesis by delivering electric current, via electrodes, to gastric smooth muscle. Enterra therapy (Medtronic, Inc, Minneapolis, MN) uses an implantable neurostimulator with a high-frequency, low-energy output. We performed a controlled, multicenter, prospective study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Enterra therapy in patients with chronic intractable nausea and vomiting from diabetic gastroparesis (DGP). Patients with refractory DGP (n = 55; mean age, 38 y; 66% female, 5.9 years of DGP) were given implants of the Enterra gastric stimulation system. After surgery, all patients had the stimulator turned on for 6 weeks and then they randomly were assigned to groups that had consecutive 3-month, cross-over periods with the device on or off. After this period, the device was turned on in all patients and they were followed up, unblinded, for 4.5 months. The median reduction in weekly vomiting frequency (WVF) at 6 weeks, compared with baseline, was 57% (P < .001). There was no difference in WVF between patients who had the device turned on or off during the cross-over period (median reduction, 0%; P = .215). At 1 year, the WVF of all patients was significantly lower than baseline values (median reduction, 67.8%; P < .001). Patients also had significant improvements in total symptom score, gastric emptying, quality of life, and median days in the hospital. In patients with intractable DGP, 6 weeks of GES therapy with Enterra significantly reduced vomiting and gastroparetic symptoms. Patients had improvements in subjective and objective parameters with chronic stimulation after 12 months of GES, compared with baseline. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-3-319-34074-6
                978-3-319-34076-0
                2017
                10.1007/978-3-319-34076-0
                Book Chapter
                2017
                December 10 2016
                : 139-151
                10.1007/978-3-319-34076-0_10

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