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      Bridging Occupational, Organizational and Public Health 

      A Critical Review of the Job Demands-Resources Model: Implications for Improving Work and Health

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      Springer Netherlands

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          Burnout and work engagement among teachers

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            Safety at work: a meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes.

            In this article, we develop and meta-analytically test the relationship between job demands and resources and burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes in the workplace. In a meta-analysis of 203 independent samples (N = 186,440), we found support for a health impairment process and for a motivational process as mechanisms through which job demands and resources relate to safety outcomes. In particular, we found that job demands such as risks and hazards and complexity impair employees' health and positively relate to burnout. Likewise, we found support for job resources such as knowledge, autonomy, and a supportive environment motivating employees and positively relating to engagement. Job demands were found to hinder an employee with a negative relationship to engagement, whereas job resources were found to negatively relate to burnout. Finally, we found that burnout was negatively related to working safely but that engagement motivated employees and was positively related to working safely. Across industries, risks and hazards was the most consistent job demand and a supportive environment was the most consistent job resource in terms of explaining variance in burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. The type of job demand that explained the most variance differed by industry, whereas a supportive environment remained consistent in explaining the most variance in all industries.
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              Compensatory control in the regulation of human performance under stress and high workload; a cognitive-energetical framework.

              This paper presents a cognitive-energetical framework for the analysis of effects of stress and high workload on human performance. Following Kahneman's (1973) model, regulation of goals and actions is assumed to require the operation of a compensatory control mechanism, which allocates resources dynamically. A two-level compensatory control model provides the basis for a mechanism of resource allocation through an effort monitor, sensitive to changes in the level of regulatory activity, coupled with a supervisory controller which can implement different modes of performance-cost trade-off. Performance may be protected under stress by the recruitment of further resources, but only at the expense of increased subjective effort, and behavioural and physiological costs. Alternatively, stability can be achieved by reducing performance goals, without further costs. Predictions about patterns of latent decrement under performance protection are evaluated in relation to the human performance literature. Even where no primary task decrements may be detected, performance may show disruption of subsidiary activities or the use of less efficient strategies, as well as increased psychophysiological activation, strain, and fatigue after-effects. Finally, the paper discusses implications of the model for the assessment of work strain, with a focus on individual-level patterns of regulatory activity and coping.
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                Author and book information

                Book Chapter
                2014
                August 22 2013
                : 43-68
                10.1007/978-94-007-5640-3_4
                6d18119f-0fdd-46b8-8011-faf6e5d30296
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