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      Psychiatric Disorders 

      Modeling Depression in Animal Models

      Humana Press

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          Most cited references 73

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          Validity, reliability and utility of the chronic mild stress model of depression: a 10-year review and evaluation.

           Paul Willner (1997)
          This paper evaluates the validity, reliability and utility of the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. In the CMS model, rats or mice are exposed sequentially, over a period of weeks, to a variety of mild stressors, and the measure most commonly used to track the effects is a decrease in consumption of a palatable sweet solution. The model has good predictive validity (behavioural changes are reversed by chronic treatment with a wide variety of antidepressants), face validity (almost all demonstrable symptoms of depression have been demonstrated), and construct validity (CMS causes a generalized decrease in responsiveness to rewards, comparable to anhedonia, the core symptom of the melancholic subtype of major depressive disorder). Overall, the CMS procedure appears to be at least as valid as any other animal model of depression. The procedure does, however, have two major drawbacks. One is the practical difficulty of carrying out CMS experiments, which are labour intensive, demanding of space, and of long duration. The other is that, while the procedure operates reliably in many laboratories, it can be difficult to establish, for reasons which remain unclear. However, once established, the CMS model can be used to study problems that are extremely difficult to address by other means.
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            Assessing substrates underlying the behavioral effects of antidepressants using the modified rat forced swimming test.

            Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressant class today and exert their antidepressant-like effects by increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin (5-HT). The rat forced swim test (FST) is the most widely used animal test predictive of antidepressant action. Procedural modifications recently introduced by our laboratory have enabled SSRI-induced behavioral responses to be measured in the modified FST. The use of this model to understand the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms underlying the role of 5-HT in the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs is reviewed. Although all antidepressants reduced behavioral immobility, those antidepressants that increase serotonergic neurotransmission predominantly increase swimming behavior whereas those that increase catacholaminergic neurotransmission increase climbing behavior. The 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B/1D) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are the 5-HT receptors most important to the therapeutic effects of SSRIs, based on extensive evaluation of agonists and antagonists of individual 5-HT receptor subtypes. Studies involving chronic administration have shown that the effects of antidepressants are augmented following chronic treatment. Other studies have demonstrated strain differences in the response to serotonergic compounds. Finally, a physiological model of performance in the rat FST has been proposed involving the regulation of 5-HT transmission by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF).
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              Active behaviors in the rat forced swimming test differentially produced by serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants

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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-1-61779-457-5
                978-1-61779-458-2
                2012
                10.1007/978-1-61779-458-2
                Book Chapter
                2012
                December 8 2011
                : 125-144
                10.1007/978-1-61779-458-2_7

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