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      Psychosocial Aspects of Chronic Kidney Disease 

      Sleep disorders in patients with CKD and ESRD

      , ,

      Elsevier

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          Association of Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Sleep Apnea, and Hypertension in a Large Community-Based Study

           F Nieto (2000)
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            Effect of CPAP on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension: the HIPARCO randomized clinical trial.

            More than 70% of patients with resistant hypertension have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is little evidence about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. To assess the effect of CPAP treatment on blood pressure values and nocturnal blood pressure patterns in patients with resistant hypertension and OSA. Open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial of parallel groups with blinded end point design conducted in 24 teaching hospitals in Spain involving 194 patients with resistant hypertension and an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15 or higher. Data were collected from June 2009 to October 2011. CPAP or no therapy while maintaining usual blood pressure control medication. The primary end point was the change in 24-hour mean blood pressure after 12 weeks. Secondary end points included changes in other blood pressure values and changes in nocturnal blood pressure patterns. Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses were performed. A total of 194 patients were randomly assigned to receive CPAP (n = 98) or no CPAP (control; n = 96). The mean AHI was 40.4 (SD, 18.9) and an average of 3.8 antihypertensive drugs were taken per patient. Baseline 24-hour mean blood pressure was 103.4 mm Hg; systolic blood pressure (SBP), 144.2 mm Hg; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 83 mm Hg. At baseline, 25.8% of patients displayed a dipper pattern (a decrease of at least 10% in the average nighttime blood pressure compared with the average daytime blood pressure). The percentage of patients using CPAP for 4 or more hours per day was 72.4%. When the changes in blood pressure over the study period were compared between groups by ITT, the CPAP group achieved a greater decrease in 24-hour mean blood pressure (3.1 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.6 to 5.6]; P = .02) and 24-hour DBP (3.2 mm Hg [95% CI, 1.0 to 5.4]; P = .005), but not in 24-hour SBP (3.1 mm Hg [95% CI, -0.6 to 6.7]; P = .10) compared with the control group. Moreover, the percentage of patients displaying a nocturnal blood pressure dipper pattern at the 12-week follow-up was greater in the CPAP group than in the control group (35.9% vs 21.6%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.4 [95% CI, 1.2 to 5.1]; P = .02). There was a significant positive correlation between hours of CPAP use and the decrease in 24-hour mean blood pressure (r = 0.29, P = .006), SBP (r = 0.25; P = .02), and DBP (r = 0.30, P = .005). Among patients with OSA and resistant hypertension, CPAP treatment for 12 weeks compared with control resulted in a decrease in 24-hour mean and diastolic blood pressure and an improvement in the nocturnal blood pressure pattern. Further research is warranted to assess longer-term health outcomes. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00616265.
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              The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults.

              Limited data have suggested that sleep-disordered breathing, a condition of repeated episodes of apnea and hypopnea during sleep, is prevalent among adults. Data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of the natural history of cardiopulmonary disorders of sleep, were used to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing among adults and address its importance to the public health. A random sample of 602 employed men and women 30 to 60 years old were studied by overnight polysomnography to determine the frequency of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep (the apnea-hypopnea score). We measured the age- and sex-specific prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in this group using three cutoff points for the apnea-hypopnea score (> or = 5, > or = 10, and > or = 15); we used logistic regression to investigate risk factors. The estimated prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, defined as an apnea-hypopnea score of 5 or higher, was 9 percent for women and 24 percent for men. We estimated that 2 percent of women and 4 percent of men in the middle-aged work force meet the minimal diagnostic criteria for the sleep apnea syndrome (an apnea-hypopnea score of 5 or higher and daytime hypersomnolence). Male sex and obesity were strongly associated with the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Habitual snorers, both men and women, tended to have a higher prevalence of apnea-hypopnea scores of 15 or higher. The prevalence of undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing is high among men and is much higher than previously suspected among women. Undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing is associated with daytime hypersomnolence.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                9780128170809
                2021
                Book Chapter
                2021
                : 183-212
                10.1016/B978-0-12-817080-9.00009-9

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