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      Methylxanthines 

      Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Natural Methylxanthines in Animal and Man

      Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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          Most cited references 232

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          Effect of smoking on caffeine clearance.

          The elimination of caffeine from saliva was compared in groups of healthy smokers (n = 13) and nonsmokers (n = 13). Mean caffeine t1/2 in smokers (3.5 hr) was shorter than that in the nonsmokers (6.0 hr). The body clearance of caffeine in the smokers (155 +/- 16 ml . kg-1 . hr-1) was greater than that in the nonsmokers (94 +/- 18 ml . kg-1 . hr-1) (p less than 0.05). No significant difference was noted in the apparent volume of distribution in smokers (720 +/- 67 ml . kg-1) and nonsmokers (610 +/- 80 ml . kg-1). These differences probably reflect the induction of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in smokers. The increased clearance of caffeine by smokers may contribute to the higher consumption of coffee reported to occur in this group.
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            Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1.

            Six human cytochrome P450s expressed in HepG2 cells using vaccinia virus cDNA-directed expression, were used to study the biotransformation of caffeine and its metabolites. CYP1A2 alone was responsible for caffeine 3-demethylation and paraxanthine 7-demethylation; in addition, 1A2 catalysed virtually all reactions related to caffeine and its metabolites. The metabolic profile of caffeine biotransformation by CYP1A2 averaged 81.5% for paraxanthine, 10.8% for theobromine and 5.4% for theophylline formation. It remained quite uniform when caffeine concentrations were varied. The most striking finding was that CYP2E1 (the ethanol-inducible form) had major influences upon caffeine metabolism: in particular, it catalysed the formation of theophylline and theobromine from caffeine. Thus, the in vivo metabolite profiling of caffeine may reveal CYP2E1 activities in addition to the previously documented activities of CYP1A2, polymorphic N-acetyltransferase and xanthine oxidase.
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              Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans.

              Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of St John's wort, garlic oil, Panax ginseng, and Ginkgo biloba affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 females) were randomly assigned to receive either St John's wort, garlic oil, P ginseng, or G biloba for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe-drug cocktails of midazolam, caffeine, chlorzoxazone, and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine) were administered before supplementation (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 with the use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation ratios indicated that St John's wort significantly induced the activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 (P <.0001). Among female subjects, St John's wort produced significantly greater increases in CYP3A4 phenotypic ratios that appeared to be unrelated to body mass index. This finding is suggestive of a sexual dimorphism in CYP3A4 inducibility. Garlic oil reduced CYP2E1 activity by 39% (P =.030), whereas no significant effect on CYP activity was observed for P ginseng and G biloba. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios may provide a practical means of predicting CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-3-642-13442-5
                978-3-642-13443-2
                2011
                10.1007/978-3-642-13443-2
                Book Chapter
                2011
                August 19 2010
                : 33-91
                10.1007/978-3-642-13443-2_3

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