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      Rabies 

      Rabies in Terrestrial Animals

      edited_book
      , ,
      Elsevier

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          Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of the grey wolf canis lupus

          The grey wolf (Canis lupus) and coyote (C. latrans) are highly mobile carnivores that disperse over great distances in search of territories and mates. Previous genetic studies have shown little geographical structure in either species. However, population genetic structure is also influenced by past isolation events and population fluctuations during glacial periods. In this study, control region sequence data from a worldwide sample of grey wolves and a more limited sample of coyotes were analysed. The results suggest that fluctuating population sizes during the late Pleistocene have left a genetic signature on levels of variation in both species. Genealogical measures of nucleotide diversity suggest that historical population sizes were much larger in both species and grey wolves were more numerous than coyotes. Currently, about 300 000 wolves and 7 million coyotes exist. In grey wolves, genetic diversity is greater than that predicted from census population size, reflecting recent historical population declines. By contrast, nucleotide diversity in coyotes is smaller than that predicted by census population size, reflecting a recent population expansion following the extirpation of wolves from much of North America. Both species show little partitioning of haplotypes on continental or regional scales. However, a statistical parsimony analysis indicates local genetic structure that suggests recent restricted gene flow.
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            Transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients.

            In 2004, four recipients of kidneys, a liver, and an arterial segment from a common organ donor died of encephalitis of an unknown cause. We reviewed the medical records of the organ donor and the recipients. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissues from the recipients were tested with a variety of assays and pathological stains for numerous causes of encephalitis. Samples from the recipients were also inoculated into mice. The organ donor had been healthy before having a subarachnoid hemorrhage that led to his death. Encephalitis developed in all four recipients within 30 days after transplantation and was accompanied by rapid neurologic deterioration characterized by agitated delirium, seizures, respiratory failure, and coma. They died an average of 13 days after the onset of neurologic symptoms. Mice inoculated with samples from the affected patients became ill seven to eight days later, and electron microscopy of central nervous system (CNS) tissue demonstrated rhabdovirus particles. Rabies-specific immunohistochemical and direct fluorescence antibody staining demonstrated rabies virus in multiple tissues from all recipients. Cytoplasmic inclusions consistent with Negri bodies were seen in CNS tissue from all recipients. Antibodies against rabies virus were present in three of the four recipients and the donor. The donor had told others of being bitten by a bat. This report documenting the transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to multiple recipients underscores the challenges of preventing and detecting transmission of unusual pathogens through transplantation. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Efficacy of rabies biologics against new lyssaviruses from Eurasia.

              New causative agents of rabies continue to emerge as shown by the recent description of four novel lyssaviruses from bats in Eurasia, Aravan (ARAV), Khujand (KHUV), Irkut (IRKV), and West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV). The effect of rabies vaccination prior to exposure to these new lyssaviruses was investigated in two animal models (i.e., Syrian hamsters and ferrets). The hamsters were vaccinated intramuscularly with a commercial human or veterinary vaccine or with an experimental vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine. At 5 weeks after vaccination, animals were challenged with ARAV, KHUV, IRKV, or WCBV, or with a traditional rabies virus of dog/coyote origin. Previously vaccinated and rabies-naive ferrets were also challenged with the four new isolates. In addition, the combined effect of rabies immunoglobulin and vaccine after exposure to the four isolates was investigated in hamsters using commercially available human products or an experimental monoclonal antibody. Results showed reduced protection with pre-exposure vaccination and with conventional rabies post-exposure prophylaxis against all four new bat viruses. In general, protection was inversely related to the genetic distance between the new isolates and traditional rabies viruses. For example, the WCBV is the most divergent of these lyssaviruses, and neither pre-exposure vaccination nor conventional post-exposure prophylaxis provided significant protection. The potential impact of these new lyssaviruses on human and domestic animal health and the impact on the putative bat reservoir populations will require further field and laboratory investigation.
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                Author and book information

                Book Chapter
                2007
                : 201-258
                10.1016/B978-012369366-2/50007-5
                82c1b317-0859-4563-9e8c-108a7a8e383e
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