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      Smith's Textbook of Endourology 

      Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

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      John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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          Most cited references 67

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          Percutaneous removal of kidney stones: review of 1,000 cases.

          We report the results of 1,000 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous removal of renal and ureteral stones. Removal was successful for 98.3 per cent of the targeted renal stones and 88.2 per cent of the ureteral stones. Complications, evolution and technique are discussed. Percutaneous techniques are an effective way to handle the majority of renal calculi and these techniques will continue to be important as shock wave lithotripsy becomes more widespread in the United States.
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            Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy versus flexible ureteroscopy/holmium laser lithotripsy: cost and outcome analysis.

            While percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is the standard of care for renal stones greater than 2 cm, recent studies have shown that staged ureteroscopy/holmium laser lithotripsy may be a reasonable option. Stones 2 to 3 cm may be amenable to ureteroscopy as well as to 1-stage treatment based on their intermediate size. We compared clinical outcomes and the estimated cost of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy vs ureteroscopy for 2 to 3 cm renal stones. We retrospectively identified patients who underwent percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and ureteroscopy at our institution from 2004 to 2008 with a maximal renal stone diameter of 2 to 3 cm. Demographic information, disease characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative data, and complications were recorded. Stone clearance was reported as a residual stone burden of 0 to 2 mm and less than 4 mm. Cost was estimated using local Medicare reimbursements for surgeon, anesthesia, hospital and outpatient services. A total of 20 patients underwent percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and 19 underwent ureteroscopy for 2 to 3 cm renal stones. The estimated cost of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy was significantly greater than that of ureteroscopy ($19,845 vs $6,675, p <0.0001). There were significantly more second stage procedures among percutaneous nephrostolithotomy cases (11 vs 1, p = 0.003). Stone clearance (0 to 2 mm) was superior for percutaneous nephrostolithotomy vs ureteroscopy (89% vs 47%, p = 0.01). Using a less than 4 mm threshold stone clearance improved to 100% vs 95% (p not significant). Two patients (10.5%) with ureteroscopy required subsequent ipsilateral stone surgery. They were noncompliant with medical/dietary therapy or radiographic surveillance. While percutaneous nephrostolithotomy achieves superior stone clearance, ureteroscopy achieves acceptable treatment outcomes with a low risk of subsequent stone related events or interventions. The lower relative cost of ureteroscopy in this population may have implications for the development of treatment guidelines.
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              Holmium: YAG Lithotripsy: Photothermal Mechanism

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                Author and book information

                Book
                9781119245193
                9781119241355
                January 30 2019
                10.1002/9781119245193
                Product
                Book Chapter
                December 30 2018
                : 322-331
                10.1002/9781119245193.ch26

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