Here the argument of the book is summarized. The metaphysics attributed to Leibniz is neither a phenomenalist idealism nor a materialism, although it has elements of both. Leibniz does not give an eliminative reduction of the phenomena of bodies and motions to perceptions. Bodies and their motions are real, even if they owe their reality to force. They are constituted by derivative forces, which are the instantaneous, phenomenal manifestations of the primitive forces. As results of these forces, they are real phenomena, not mere appearances. The specific conclusions of the various chapters are summarized, and then Leibniz’s philosophy of substance is briefly examined with an eye to its applicability and relevance to the foundations of modern science.