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      Sea Turtle Parasites

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      Springer Netherlands

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          Most cited references 46

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          Advances and trends in the molecular systematics of anisakid nematodes, with implications for their evolutionary ecology and host-parasite co-evolutionary processes.

          The application of molecular systematics to the anisakid nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum, parasites of aquatic organisms, over the last two decades, has advanced the understanding of their systematics, taxonomy, ecology and phylogeny substantially. Here the results of this effort on this group of species from the early genetic works to the current status of their revised taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary aspects are reviewed for each of three parasitic groups. It has been shown that many anisakid morphospecies of Anisakis, Contracaecum and Pseudoterranova include a certain number of sibling species. Molecular genetic markers provided a rapid, precise means to screen and identify several species that serve as definitive and intermediate and or/paratenic hosts of the so far genetically characterized species. Patterns of differential distribution of anisakid nematodes in various definitive and intermediate hosts are presented. Differences in the life history of related species can be due both to differential host-parasite co-adaptation and co-evolution, and/or to interspecific competition, that can reduce the range of potential hosts in sympatric conditions. Phylogenetic hypotheses attempted for anisakid nematodes and the possible evolutionary scenarios that have been proposed inferred from molecular data, also with respect to the phylogeny of their hosts are presented for the parasite-host associations Anisakis-cetaceans and Contracaecum-pinnipeds, showing that codivergence and host-switching events could have accompanied the evolution of these groups of parasites. Finally, examples in which anisakid nematodes recognized genetically at the species level in definitive and intermediate/paratenic hosts from various geographical areas of the Boreal and Austral regions and their infection levels have been used as biological indicators of fish stocks and food-web integrity in areas at high versus low levels of habitat disturbance (pollution, overfishing, by-catch) are presented.
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            Genetic and ecological data on the Anisakis simplex complex, with evidence for a new species (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea, Anisakidae).

            Isozyme analysis at 24 loci was carried out on anisakid nematodes of the Anisakis simplex complex, recovered from various intermediate/paratenic (squid, fish) and definitive (marine mammals) hosts from various parts of the world. A number of samples were found to belong to A. simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii, widely extending the geographic ranges and the number of hosts of these 2 species. In addition, a new distinct gene pool was detected, showing different alleles with respect to A. simplex s. str and A. pegreffii at 5 diagnostic loci (99% level). Samples with this gene pool were assigned to a new species, provisionally labeled A. simplex C. Reproductive isolation between A. simplex C and the other 2 Anisakis species was directly assessed by the lack of hybrid and recombinant genotypes in mixed samples from sympatric areas, i.e., Pacific Canada for A. simplex C+A. simplex s. str., South Africa and New Zealand for A. simplex C+A. pegreffii, even when such samples were recovered from the same individual host. Similar levels of genetic divergence were observed among the three species (DNei from 0.36 to 0.45). At the intraspecific level, Canadian Pacific and Austral populations of A. simplex C were found to be genetically rather differentiated from one another (average DNei = 0.08), contrasting with the remarkable genetic homogeneity detected within both A. simplex s. str. and A. pegreffii (average DNei about 0.01). Accordingly, a lower amount of gene flow was estimated within A. simplex C (Nm = 1.6) than within the other 2 species (Nm = 5.4 and 17.7, respectively). Anisakis simplex C showed the highest average values of genetic variability with respect to both A. simplex s. str. and A. pegreffii, e.g., expected mean heterozygosity. Hr = 0.23, 0.16, and 0.11, respectively, in the 3 species. Data on geographic distribution and hosts of the 3 members so far detected in the A. simplex complex are given. Their ecological niche is markedly differentiated, with a low proportion of hosts shared. Intermediate and definitive hosts of A. simplex s. str. and A. pegreffii appear to belong to distinct food webs, benthodemersal, and pelagic, respectively; this would lead to different transmission pathways for the parasites.
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              Genetic evidence for three species within Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Ascaridida, Ascaridoidea) in the North Atlantic and Norwegian and Barents Seas.

              Genetic variation of 1017 specimens of codworm, Pseudoterranova decipiens, collected from fish and seals at 23 sampling locations in the North Atlantic and Norwegian and Barents Seas, was analysed on the basis of 16 enzyme loci. Three reproductively isolated species, provisionally designated P. decipiens A, B and C, were detected, showing distinct alleles at the following loci: Mdh-1, 6Pgdh, Np, Pgm, Est-2 (between species A and B); Mdh-3, 6Pgdh, Np, Sod-1, Adk, Pgm, Est-2, Mpi (between A and C); Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Sod-1, Adk, Pgm, Est-2, Mpi (between B and C). One F1 hybrid was observed between P. decipiens A and B, but this apparently does not lead to any gene exchange between the two species, which do not show any evidence of introgression. No hybrids or introgressed individuals were observed between P. decipiens C and either A or B. Genetic distances among conspecific populations were low (average Nei's D 0.001-0.005), even though they were collected thousands of kilometres apart, indicating high levels of gene flow within each of the three species. The values of Nei's index D were 0.44 between P. decipiens A and B, 0.57 between B and C, and 0.79 between A and C. Estimated evolutionary divergence times, using Nei's formula, range from 2 to 4 million years. Differences between P. decipiens A, B and C were also found with respect to genetic variability, morphology, geographical distribution and hosts. Mean heterozygosity values of 0.08, 0.05 and 0.02 were obtained for P. decipiens A, B and C, respectively. Preliminary morphological examination of adult males, previously identified by multilocus electrophoresis, revealed differences in the relative size and pattern of caudal papillae. P. decipiens B is widespread in the study area, whereas P. decipiens A was found only in the North-East Atlantic and Norwegian Sea. In this area P. decipiens A is most common in the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, while the common seal, Phoca vitulina, is the main host for P. decipiens B. In Canadian Atlantic waters, where P. decipiens A is apparently absent, P. decipiens B infects both grey and common seals; a few specimens were also found in the hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. The only definitive host so far identified for P. decipiens C is the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus; P. decipiens C appears to be widespread, occurring in both the North-West Atlantic and Barents Sea.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-1-4020-8277-1
                978-1-4020-8278-8
                2009
                10.1007/978-1-4020-8278-8
                Book Chapter
                : 507-519
                10.1007/978-1-4020-8278-8_48

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