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      Handbook of Global Tuberculosis Control: Practices and Challenges 

      BCG Immunization: Efficacy, Limitations, and Future Needs

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      Springer US

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          Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis

          Objectives To determine whether BCG vaccination protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as assessed by interferon γ release assays (IGRA) in children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of electronic databases 1950 to November 2013, checking of reference lists, hand searching of journals, and contact with experts. Setting Community congregate settings and households. Inclusion criteria Vaccinated and unvaccinated children aged under 16 with known recent exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Children were screened for infection with M tuberculosis with interferon γ release assays. Data extraction Study results relating to diagnostic accuracy were extracted and risk estimates were combined with random effects meta-analysis. Results The primary analysis included 14 studies and 3855 participants. The estimated overall risk ratio was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.92), indicating a protective efficacy of 19% against infection among vaccinated children after exposure compared with unvaccinated children. The observed protection was similar when estimated with the two types of interferon γ release assays (ELISpot or QuantiFERON). Restriction of the analysis to the six studies (n=1745) with information on progression to active tuberculosis at the time of screening showed protection against infection of 27% (risk ratio 0.73, 0.61 to 0.87) compared with 71% (0.29, 0.15 to 0.58) against active tuberculosis. Among those infected, protection against progression to disease was 58% (0.42, 0.23 to 0.77). Conclusions BCG protects against M tuberculosis infection as well as progression from infection to disease. Trial registration PROSPERO registration No CRD42011001698 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).
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            Interferon-gamma-receptor deficiency in an infant with fatal bacille Calmette-Guérin infection.

             F Altare,  S Blanche,  P Revy (1996)
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              Epidemiological benefits of more-effective tuberculosis vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics.

              The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supports an ambitious portfolio of novel vaccines, drug regimens, and diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB). We elicited the expected efficacies and improvements of the novel interventions in discussions with the foundations managing their development. Using an age-structured mathematical model of TB, we explored the potential benefits of novel interventions under development and those not yet in the portfolio, focusing on the WHO Southeast Asia region. Neonatal vaccination with the portfolio vaccine decreases TB incidence by 39% to 52% by 2050. Drug regimens that shorten treatment duration and are efficacious against drug-resistant strains reduce incidence by 10-27%. New diagnostics reduce incidence by 13-42%. A triple combination of a portfolio vaccine, drug regimen, and diagnostics reduces incidence by 71%. A short mass vaccination catch-up campaign, not yet in the portfolio, to augment the triple combination, accelerates the decrease, preventing >30% more cases by 2050 than just the triple combination. New vaccines and drug regimens targeted at the vast reservoir of latently infected people, not in the portfolio, would reduce incidence by 37% and 82%, respectively. The combination of preventive latent therapy and a 2-month drug treatment regimen reduces incidence by 94%. Novel technologies in the pipeline would achieve substantial reductions in TB incidence, but not the Stop TB Partnership target for elimination. Elimination will require new delivery strategies, such as mass vaccination campaigns, and new products targeted at latently infected people.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-1-4939-6665-3
                978-1-4939-6667-7
                2017
                10.1007/978-1-4939-6667-7
                Book Chapter
                2017
                June 10 2017
                : 343-357

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