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      Drug Discovery and Evaluation 

      Anti-arthrotic and immunmodulatory activity

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      Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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          Most cited references 202

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          Autoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis

          We have found that intradermal injection of native type II collagen extracted from human, chick or rat cartilage induces an inflammatory arthritis in approximately 40% of rats of several strains whether complete Freund's adjuvant or incomplete Freund's adjuvant is used. Type I or III collagen extracted from skin, cartilage proteoglycans and alpha1(II) chains were incapable of eliciting arthritis, as was type II collagen injected without adjuvant. The disease is a chronic proliferative synovitis, resembling adjuvant arthritis in rats and rheumatoid arthritis in humans. Native type II co-lagen modified by limited pepsin digestion still produces arthritis, suggesting that type- specific determinants residing in the helical region of the molecule are responsible for the induction of disease. Since homologous type II collagen emulsified in oil without bacterial preparations regularly causes the disease, this new animal model of arthritis represents a unique example of experimentally-inducible autoimmunity to a tissue component.
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            Improved quantitation and discrimination of sulphated glycosaminoglycans by use of dimethylmethylene blue

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              Reexpression of cartilage-specific genes by dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads.

              We have used the three-dimensional culture system in alginate beads to redifferentiate human articular chondrocytes which were first expanded on a plastic support. After 15 days in alginate beads, electron microscopy showed that cells had synthesized an extracellular matrix containing collagen fibrils. Electrophoretic analysis of proline-labeled cells demonstrated that redifferentiated chondrocytes synthesized mainly type II collagen and its precursors (pro alpha 1II, pc alpha 1II, and pn alpha 1II). After pepsin digestion a small amount of collagen type XI was also detected. These results were confirmed by Northern blot analysis of total RNAs. Hybridization with collagen cDNA probes coding for the alpha 1(II) and alpha 1(I) chains of collagen types II and I showed that chondrocytes cultured in alginate expressed mainly alpha 1(II) mRNA, whereas alpha 1(I) mRNA transcripts were almost undetectable. Such a result was observed even after several passages on plastic flasks, suggesting that dedifferentiated cells were able to revert to a chondrocytic phenotype in this three-dimensional system. However, SV40-transformed chondrocytes were not able to redifferentiate in alginate as no alpha 1(II) mRNAs were detected. Total RNA was converted into cDNA by reverse transcription and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. This technique was employed to amplify mRNAs specific for collagen type II and type X and the large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan. Two transcripts resulting from an alternative splicing of the complement regulatory protein (CRP)-like domain of aggrecan were originally identified in chondrocytes in monolayers. Like intact cartilage, chondrocytes in alginate expressed only the larger transcript with the CRP domain, whereas the two transcripts were equally expressed in SV40-transformed chondrocytes. Thus, the alginate system appears to represent a relevant model for the redifferentiation of human chondrocytes, especially when only a small cartilage biopsy is available, and could prove useful for pulse-chase studies of patients with skeletal chondrodysplasias. However it was unable to restore the chondrocytic phenotype in virally transformed cells.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-3-662-03335-7
                978-3-662-03333-3
                1997
                10.1007/978-3-662-03333-3
                Book Chapter
                1997
                : 421-460
                10.1007/978-3-662-03333-3_9

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