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      Learning from Resilience Strategies in Tanzania : An outlook of International Development Challenges 

      Women in the Informal Sector in Tanzania: The Case of Dar Es Salaam City

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      Peter Lang

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          Abstract

          It is estimated that about 60 % of the potential working population in developing countries earn their living in the informal sector (Fapohunda, 2012). The informal sector represents economic activities by individual operators and economic units (in law or practice) without any formal contractual arrangements. This economic activity is not subjected to government regulation or taxation. It consists of unpaid workers in family enterprises, casual wage employment, home-based workers or service providers and street vending (Etim and Daramola, 2020). It is often characterized by less stability, a lack of social protection, lower earnings, and higher gender gaps (Malta et al., 2019). Most workers live and work in this sector not because it is their personal wish or choice, but because they have no chance of being hired by an employer in the formal sector (Fapohunda, 2012). Moreover, some specific sectors are highly dominated by women (Bertulfo, 2011; Fapohunda, 2012) and others by men. Generally, the percentage of women workers who are informally employed in developing countries (92 %) is higher than the percentage of men workers (87 %) (ILO, 2018; Bonnet et al., 2019). In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the average share of informal employment of women in the non-agricultural sector is 83 % while for men, the share is 72 % (Malta et al., 2019).

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          10.3726/9782875744333.003.0012
          bdc113e3-e4a9-4a4d-984a-08c71b72bd24
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