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      Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract 

      The Cell Biology of Gastric Acid Secretion

      edited-book
      , ,
      Elsevier

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          Signals for sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes.

          Sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes is mediated by signals present within the cytosolic domains of the proteins. Most signals consist of short, linear sequences of amino acid residues. Some signals are referred to as tyrosine-based sorting signals and conform to the NPXY or YXXO consensus motifs. Other signals known as dileucine-based signals fit [DE]XXXL[LI] or DXXLL consensus motifs. All of these signals are recognized by components of protein coats peripherally associated with the cytosolic face of membranes. YXXO and [DE]XXXL[LI] signals are recognized with characteristic fine specificity by the adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, and AP-4, whereas DXXLL signals are recognized by another family of adaptors known as GGAs. Several proteins, including clathrin, AP-2, and Dab2, have been proposed to function as recognition proteins for NPXY signals. YXXO and DXXLL signals bind in an extended conformation to the mu2 subunit of AP-2 and the VHS domain of the GGAs, respectively. Phosphorylation events regulate signal recognition. In addition to peptide motifs, ubiquitination of cytosolic lysine residues also serves as a signal for sorting at various stages of the endosomal-lysosomal system. Conjugated ubiquitin is recognized by UIM, UBA, or UBC domains present within many components of the internalization and lysosomal targeting machinery. This complex array of signals and recognition proteins ensures the dynamic but accurate distribution of transmembrane proteins to different compartments of the endosomal-lysosomal system.
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            Mitogen-activated protein kinase: conservation of a three-kinase module from yeast to human.

            Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, and cell adherence. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The basic assembly of MAPK pathways is a three-component module conserved from yeast to humans. The MAPK module includes three kinases that establish a sequential activation pathway comprising a MAPK kinase kinase (MKKK), MAPK kinase (MKK), and MAPK. Currently, there have been 14 MKKK, 7 MKK, and 12 MAPK identified in mammalian cells. The mammalian MAPK can be subdivided into five families: MAPKerk1/2, MAPKp38, MAPKjnk, MAPKerk3/4, and MAPKerk5. Each MAPK family has distinct biological functions. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are five MAPK pathways involved in mating, cell wall remodelling, nutrient deprivation, and responses to stress stimuli such as osmolarity changes. Component members of the yeast pathways have conserved counterparts in mammalian cells. The number of different MKKK in MAPK modules allows for the diversity of inputs capable of activating MAPK pathways. In this review, we define all known MAPK module kinases from yeast to humans, what is known about their regulation, defined MAPK substrates, and the function of MAPK in cell physiology.
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              ERM proteins and merlin: integrators at the cell cortex.

              A fundamental property of many plasma-membrane proteins is their association with the underlying cytoskeleton to determine cell shape, and to participate in adhesion, motility and other plasma-membrane processes, including endocytosis and exocytosis. The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins are crucial components that provide a regulated linkage between membrane proteins and the cortical cytoskeleton, and also participate in signal-transduction pathways. The closely related tumour suppressor merlin shares many properties with ERM proteins, yet also provides a distinct and essential function.
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                Author and book information

                Book Chapter
                2006
                : 1189-1221
                10.1016/B978-012088394-3/50051-9
                bfb60569-38d6-4348-a3ed-271546ca6c4e
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