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      Herzkrankheiten : Pathophysiologie Diagnostik Therapie 

      Klinik der koronaren Herzerkrankung II: Akuter Herzinfarkt

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          Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial, Phase I: A comparison between intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and intravenous streptokinase. Clinical findings through hospital discharge.

          Intravenous administration of 80 mg of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA, 40, 20, and 20 mg in successive hours) and streptokinase (SK, 1.5 million units over 1 hr) was compared in a double-blind, randomized trial in 290 patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction. These patients entered the trial within 7 hr of the onset of symptoms and underwent baseline coronary arteriography before thrombolytic therapy was instituted. Ninety minutes after the start of thrombolytic therapy, occluded infarct-related arteries had opened in 62% of 113 patients in the rt-PA and 31% of 119 patients in the SK group (p less than .001). Twice as many occluded infarct-related arteries opened after rt-PA compared with SK at the time of each of seven angiograms obtained during the first 90 min after commencing thrombolytic therapy. Regardless of the time from onset of symptoms to treatment, more arteries were opened after rt-PA than SK. The reduction in circulating fibrinogen and plasminogen and the increase in circulating fibrin split products at 3 and 24 hr were significantly less in patients treated with rt-PA than in those treated with SK (p less than .001). The occurrence of bleeding events, administration of blood transfusions, and reocclusion of the infarct-related artery was comparable in the two groups. Thus, in patients with acute myocardial infarction, rt-PA elicited reperfusion in twice as many occluded infarct-related arteries as compared with SK at each of seven serial observations during the first 90 min after onset of treatment.
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            Circadian variation in the frequency of onset of acute myocardial infarction.

            To determine whether the onset of myocardial infarction occurs randomly throughout the day, we analyzed the time of onset of pain in 2999 patients admitted with myocardial infarction. A marked circadian rhythm in the frequency of onset was detected, with a peak from 6 a.m. to noon (P less than 0.01). In 703 of the patients, the time of the first elevation in the plasma creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) level could be used to time the onset of myocardial infarction objectively. CK-MB-estimated timing confirmed the existence of a circadian rhythm, with a three-fold increase in the frequency of onset of myocardial infarction at peak (9 a.m.) as compared with trough (11 p.m.) periods. The circadian rhythm was not detected in patients receiving beta-adrenergic blocking agents before myocardial infarction but was present in those not receiving such therapy. If coronary arteries become vulnerable to occlusion when the intima covering an atherosclerotic plaque is disrupted, the circadian timing of myocardial infarction may result from a variation in the tendency to thrombosis. If the rhythmic processes that drive the circadian rhythm of myocardial-infarction onset can be identified, their modification may delay or prevent the occurrence of infarction.
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              An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction. The GUSTO investigators.

              The relative efficacy of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator and the roles of intravenous as compared with subcutaneous heparin as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction are unresolved questions. The current trial was designed to compare new, aggressive thrombolytic strategies with standard thrombolytic regimens in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Our hypothesis was that newer thrombolytic strategies that produce earlier and sustained reperfusion would improve survival. In 15 countries and 1081 hospitals, 41,021 patients with evolving myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to four different thrombolytic strategies, consisting of the use of streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin, streptokinase and intravenous heparin, accelerated tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and intravenous heparin, or a combination of streptokinase plus t-PA with intravenous heparin. ("Accelerated" refers to the administration of t-PA over a period of 1 1/2 hours--with two thirds of the dose given in the first 30 minutes--rather than the conventional period of 3 hours.) The primary end point was 30-day mortality. The mortality rates in the four treatment groups were as follows: streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin, 7.2 percent; streptokinase and intravenous heparin, 7.4 percent; accelerated t-PA and intravenous heparin, 6.3 percent, and the combination of both thrombolytic agents with intravenous heparin, 7.0 percent. This represented a 14 percent reduction (95 percent confidence interval, 5.9 to 21.3 percent) in mortality for accelerated t-PA as compared with the two streptokinase-only strategies (P = 0.001). The rates of hemorrhagic stroke were 0.49 percent, 0.54 percent, 0.72 percent, and 0.94 percent in the four groups, respectively, which represented a significant excess of hemorrhagic strokes for accelerated t-PA (P = 0.03) and for the combination strategy (P < 0.001), as compared with streptokinase only. A combined end point of death or disabling stroke was significantly lower in the accelerated-tPA group than in the streptokinase-only groups (6.9 percent vs. 7.8 percent, P = 0.006). The findings of this large-scale trial indicate that accelerated t-PA given with intravenous heparin provides a survival benefit over previous standard thrombolytic regimens.
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                Book Chapter
                1996
                : 679-724
                10.1007/978-3-642-97605-6_30
                e1090342-d6db-4d0d-8ca5-59d7d2a3710b
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