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      Addiction Medicine 

      Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals

      Springer New York

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          Most cited references 65

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          Homosexual identity formation: a theoretical model.

           C. Cass (1978)
          A six-stage model of homosexual identity formation is outlined within the framework of interpersonal congruency theory. Stages are differentiated on the basis of the person's perceptions of his/her own behavior and the actions that arise as a consequence of this perception. The person is seen to have an active role in the acquisition of a homosexual identity. Alternative paths of development are proposed within each stage. The notion that people can accept homosexuality as a positively valued status is assumed. Several factors believed to be influential in determining whether a person takes one line of development or another are discussed. The model is intended to be applied to both female and male homosexuals.
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            Sexual orientation and mental health: results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults.

            Community surveys have reported a higher rate of mental health problems in combined groups of homosexual and bisexual participants, but have not separated these two groups. To assess separately the mental health of homosexual and bisexual groups compared with heterosexuals. A community survey of 4824 adults was carried out in Canberra, Australia. Measures covered anxiety, depression, suicidality, alcohol misuse, positive and negative affect and a range of risk factors for poorer mental health. The bisexual group was highest on measures of anxiety, depression and negative affect, with the homosexual group falling between the other two groups. Both the bisexual and homosexual groups were high on suicidality. Bisexuals also had more current adverse life events, greater childhood adversity, less positive support from family, more negative support from friends and a higher frequency of financial problems. Homosexuals reported greater childhood adversity and less positive support from family. The bisexual group had the worst mental health, although homosexual participants also tended to report more distress.
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              Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey.

              This study examined the risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals with same-sex sexual partners. Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative household survey. Respondents were asked the number of women and men with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 5 years. Psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R) criteria were assessed with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A total of 2.1% of men and 1.5% of women reported 1 or more same-sex sexual partners in the past 5 years. These respondents had higher 12-month prevalences of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and of suicidal thoughts and plans than did respondents with opposite-sex partners only. Decomposition showed that the elevated same-sex 12-month prevalences were largely due to higher lifetime prevalences. Ages at onset and persistence of disorders did not differ between the same-sex and opposite-sex subsamples. Homosexual orientation, defined as having same-sex sexual partners, is associated with a general elevation of risk for anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and for suicidal thoughts and plans. Further research is needed to replicate and explore the causal mechanisms underlying this association.

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                August 20 2010
                : 1355-1374


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