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      Why We Are Losing the War on Gun Violence in the United States 

      Understanding the Political Divide in Gun Policy Support

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          A theory of human motivation.

          A. MASLOW (1943)
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            A Decade of System Justification Theory: Accumulated Evidence of Conscious and Unconscious Bolstering of the Status Quo

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              Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research.

              This meta-analysis reviews 208 laboratory studies of acute psychological stressors and tests a theoretical model delineating conditions capable of eliciting cortisol responses. Psychological stressors increased cortisol levels; however, effects varied widely across tasks. Consistent with the theoretical model, motivated performance tasks elicited cortisol responses if they were uncontrollable or characterized by social-evaluative threat (task performance could be negatively judged by others), when methodological factors and other stressor characteristics were controlled for. Tasks containing both uncontrollable and social-evaluative elements were associated with the largest cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone changes and the longest times to recovery. These findings are consistent with the animal literature on the physiological effects of uncontrollable social threat and contradict the belief that cortisol is responsive to all types of stressors.
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                Author and book information

                Book Chapter
                2021
                December 09 2020
                : 89-106
                10.1007/978-3-030-55513-9_9
                f1039b6f-a5b7-4db2-be40-4313091f26fa
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