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      Uterine Myoma, Myomectomy and Minimally Invasive Treatments 

      Adenomyosis and Adenomyomata

      Springer International Publishing

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          Most cited references 22

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          The pathophysiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis: tissue injury and repair

          Introduction This study presents a unifying concept of the pathophysiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis. In particular, a physiological model is proposed that provides a comprehensive explanation of the local production of estrogen at the level of ectopic endometrial lesions and the endometrium of women affected with the disease. Methods In women suffering from endometriosis and adenomyosis and in normal controls, a critical analysis of uterine morphology and function was performed using immunohistochemistry, MRI, hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, videohysterosonography, molecular biology as well as clinical aspects. The relevant molecular biologic aspects were compared to those of tissue injury and repair (TIAR) mechanisms reported in literature. Results and conclusions Circumstantial evidence suggests that endometriosis and adenomyosis are caused by trauma. In the spontaneously developing disease, chronic uterine peristaltic activity or phases of hyperperistalsis induce, at the endometrial–myometrial interface near the fundo-cornual raphe, microtraumatizations with the activation of the mechanism of ‘tissue injury and repair’ (TIAR). This results in the local production of estrogen. With ongoing peristaltic activity, such sites might increase and the increasingly produced estrogens interfere in a paracrine fashion with the ovarian control over uterine peristaltic activity, resulting in permanent hyperperistalsis and a self-perpetuation of the disease process. Overt auto-traumatization of the uterus with dislocation of fragments of basal endometrium into the peritoneal cavity and infiltration of basal endometrium into the depth of the myometrial wall ensues. In most cases of endometriosis/adenomyosis, a causal event early in the reproductive period of life must be postulated leading rapidly to uterine hyperperistalsis. In late premenopausal adenomyosis, such an event might not have occurred. However, as indicated by the high prevalence of the disease, it appears to be unavoidable that, with time, chronic normoperistalsis throughout the reproductive period of life leads to the same extent of microtraumatization. With the activation of the TIAR mechanism followed by infiltrative growth and chronic inflammation, endometriosis/adenomyosis of the younger woman and premenopausal adenomyosis share in principle the same pathophysiology. In conclusion, endometriosis and adenomyosis result from the physiological mechanism of ‘tissue injury and repair’ (TIAR) involving local estrogen production in an estrogen-sensitive environment normally controlled by the ovary.
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            Adenomyosis: review of the literature.

            Adenomyosis usually occurs in women in their reproductive years, predominantly in those with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. The etiology and pathophysiology remain unclear; however, recent advancements in diagnostic methods and new investigations of treatment options have changed how clinicians manage adenomyosis. A review was performed using PubMed and cross-references of reviews, case reports, and prospective and retrospective studies published from 1958 to 2010 to provide an overview of the etiology, diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors, clinical signs and symptoms, and treatments of adenomyosis.
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              Italian multicenter study on complications of laparoscopic myomectomy.

              To study intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic myomectomy and patients' characteristics influencing this risk. Prospective study, with a review of the patient records by the first author (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Four Italian referral centers. The incidence and type of complications occurring in 2050 laparoscopic myomectomies undertaken from January 1998 through December 2004 were recorded. The surgical technique, as well as the expertise of the operators, was the same for the 4 centers. Injection of vasoconstrictive agents was used in 37%. The serosa was always incised in a vertical fashion; mechanical enucleation of the myoma was completed whenever possible; suture was performed in 1 or 2 layers with deep and large stitches swaged to 1 or 0 polyglactin sutures that were tied intracorporeally or extracorporeally. Single or multiple myomectomies (n = 2050) for symptomatic myomas measuring at least 4 cm in diameter were performed. Most patients (48%) had more than 1 myoma, with a maximum of 15 per patient (myomas removed for patients: 2.26 +/- 1.8, mean +/- SD). Myoma size ranged from 1 to 20 cm (mean 6.40 +/- 2.6 SD). Myomas smaller than 4 cm were removed during myomectomy for larger ones. Total complication rate was 11.1% (225/2050 cases). Minor complications accounted for 9.1% (187/2050 cases) and major complications for 2.02% (38/2050 cases). The most serious events were hemorrhages (14 cases, 0.68%) requiring blood transfusions in 3 cases (0.14%); 10 postoperative hematomas (0.48%, one in the broad ligament and 9 in the myomectomy scar); 1 bowel injury (0.04%); 1 postoperative acute kidney failure (0.04%); and 2 unexpected sarcomas (0.09%). Failure to complete planned surgery occurred in 7 cases (0.34%). Two patients were readmitted for surgery (0.09%): 1 had a laparoscopic hysterectomy because of a severe blood loss, and the other had drainage of a hematoma in the broad ligament. After a follow-up period of 41.70 +/- 23.03 months (mean +/- SD), 386 (22.9%) patients conceived, with a pregnancy rate in patients wishing pregnancy of 69.8%; among them, 1 (0.26%) recorded spontaneous uterine rupture at 33 weeks gestation. Odds ratio computed to estimate the risk of complications in relation to the patient characteristics showed that the probability of complications significantly rises with an increase in the number (more than 3 myomas OR: 4.46, p <.001) and with the intramural (OR: 1.48, p <.05) or the intraligamentous location of myomas (OR: 2.36, p <.01) whereas the myoma size seems to influence particularly the risk of major complications (OR: 6.88, p <.001). This is one of the largest series reported of laparoscopic myomectomy and the first focused on complications. The complication rate appears to be better than acceptable in comparison with complication rates reported after laparotomic myomectomies. Laparoscopic myomectomy, when performed by an experienced surgeon, can be considered a safe technique with an extremely low failure rate and good results in terms of pregnancy outcome.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-3-319-10304-4
                978-3-319-10305-1
                2015
                10.1007/978-3-319-10305-1
                Book Chapter
                2015
                October 17 2014
                : 95-108
                10.1007/978-3-319-10305-1_7

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