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      Hirschsprung's Disease and Allied Disorders 

      Neurocristopathies and Particular Associations with Hirschsprung’s Disease

      Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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          Most cited references 132

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          Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2.

          This is a consensus statement from an international group, mostly of clinical endocrinologists. MEN1 and MEN2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. The commonest tumors secrete PTH or gastrin in MEN1, and calcitonin or catecholamines in MEN2. Management strategies improved after the discoveries of their genes. MEN1 has no clear syndromic variants. Tumor monitoring in MEN1 carriers includes biochemical tests yearly and imaging tests less often. Neck surgery includes subtotal or total parathyroidectomy, parathyroid cryopreservation, and thymectomy. Proton pump inhibitors or somatostatin analogs are the main management for oversecretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, except insulin. The roles for surgery of most entero-pancreatic tumors present several controversies: exclusion of most operations on gastrinomas and indications for surgery on other tumors. Each MEN1 family probably has an inactivating MEN1 germline mutation. Testing for a germline MEN1 mutation gives useful information, but rarely mandates an intervention. The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A, MEN2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). They vary in aggressiveness of MTC and spectrum of disturbed organs. Mortality in MEN2 is greater from MTC than from pheochromocytoma. Thyroidectomy, during childhood if possible, is the goal in all MEN2 carriers to prevent or cure MTC. Each MEN2 index case probably has an activating germline RET mutation. RET testing has replaced calcitonin testing to diagnose the MEN2 carrier state. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant, the age of onset of MTC, and the aggressiveness of MTC; consequently, that mutation should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy.
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            Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

            Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that affects tissues derived from neural ectoderm. It is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and phaeochromocytoma. The MEN2A gene has recently been localized by a combination of genetic and physical mapping techniques to a 480-kilobase region in chromosome 10q11.2 (refs 2,3). The DNA segment encompasses the RET proto-oncogene, a receptor tyrosine kinase gene expressed in MTC and phaeochromocytoma and at lower levels in normal human thyroid. This suggested RET as a candidate for the MEN2A gene. We have identified missense mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in 20 of 23 apparently distinct MEN 2A families, but not in 23 normal controls. Further, 19 of these 20 mutations affect the same conserved cysteine residue at the boundary of the RET extracellular and transmembrane domains.
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              A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

              Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) comprises three clinically distinct, dominantly inherited cancer syndromes. MEN 2A patients develop medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and phaeochromocytoma. MEN 2B patients show in addition ganglioneuromas of the gastrointestinal tract and skeletal abnormalities. In familial MTC, only the thyroid is affected. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have recently been reported in association with MEN 2A and familial MTC. All mutations occurred within codons specifying cysteine residues in the transition point between the RET protein extracellular and transmembrane domains. We now show that MEN 2B is also associated with mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. A mutation in codon 664, causing the substitution of a threonine for a methionine in the tyrosine kinase domain of the protein, was found in all nine unrelated MEN 2B patients studied. The same mutation was found in six out of 18 sporadic tumours.
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                Author and book information

                Book
                978-3-540-33934-2
                978-3-540-33935-9
                2008
                10.1007/978-3-540-33935-9
                Book Chapter
                : 253-266
                10.1007/978-3-540-33935-9_18

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