Accumulating evidence indicates that exposure to air pollution is associated with increased mortality from respiratory disease. Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been associated with decreases in lung function and immunity, and with increased rates of hospitalization for lung disease, including pneumonia. Furthermore, sex differences in frequency and severity of pulmonary disease and infection have been reported. Pneumonia, which is commonly caused by bacterial infection and subsequent lung inflammation leading to hospitalization and death, occurs at different rates in men vs. women. This collection encompasses clinical, animal and epidemiological studies linking exposure to air pollution and pneumonia pathogenesis in males and females. This information is relevant for the development of more effective therapeutics and treatment options for patients suffering from pneumonia.