# AHRO Reviews of Nursing & Midwifery

AHRO Reviews of Nursing & MIdwifery is an international  open-access journal that promotes the dissemination of quality knowledge in all aspects of nursing practice

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The AHRO Review of Nursing & Midwifery (ARNW) is an international, open-access, peer-reviewed, scientific journal that seeks to promote the dissemination of quality knowledge related to all spheres of nursing and midwifery practices. The primary aim is to promote a high standard of clinically related scholarship which advances and supports the practice and discipline of nursing and midwifery. The Journal also aims to promote the international exchange of ideas and experiences that draws from the different cultures in which practice takes place. Further, ARNW seeks to enrich insight into clinical need and the implications for nursing and midwifery interventions and models of service delivery. Emphasis is placed on promoting critical debate on the art and science of nursing and midwifery practices.

ARNW is essential reading for anyone involved in nursing practice, whether clinicians, researchers, educators, managers, policy makers, or students. The development of clinical practice and the changing patterns of inter-professional working are also central to ARNW's scope of interest. Contributions are welcomed from other health professionals on issues that have a direct impact on nursing practice.

We publish high quality papers that makes important and novel contribution to the field of clinical nursing and midwifery, and which demonstrate clinical application and international relevance.

Topics include but are not limited to:

• Clinical research
• Evidence-based practice
• Patients and family health and health care
• Nursing research
• Nursing delivery
• Clinical Nursing
• Emergency Nursing
• Acute setting nursing
• Surgical Nursing
• Public Health Nursing
• Dispensary Nursing
• Midwifery

AHRO Review of Nursing & Midwifery (Print): 2754-8899

AHRO Review of Nursing & Midwifery (Online): 2754-8902

• Professor Abubakar Yaro (AHRO University, Scotland & University of Strathclyde, Scotland)

Managing Editor

• Ephraim Kumi Senkyire (Ga West Municipal Hospitals-Ghana Health Services & Global Alliance for Newborn Care (GLANCE))

Associate Editors

• Dr Pietersen Gerbrecht Elizabeth ( Consultant & Independent Clinical Research Nurse Specialist, South Africa)
• Dr Sharon Byrne (College of New Jersey, USA)
• Dr Eleni Hadjigeorgiou ( Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus)
• Dr Constantine Steven Loum Labongo ( Gulu University, Uganda)
• Dr Unice Goshomi Nee Hlonfwani ( Women's University in Africa, Zimbabwe)
• Dr Grace Danda Nee Kaye ( National University of Science & Technology, Zimbabwe)
• Dr Elhadi Miskeen ( University of Bisha & MCH, Bisha, Sudan)
• Mrs Rebecca Chikondi ( Lira University, Uganda)
• Mwandida Matilda Mdazepa Nkhoma ( Kamuzu University of Health Science, Malawi)
• Dr Yasir Mohammed Zaroug Elradi ( Health Assurance Hospital Co (DHAMAN) Kuwait)
• Ngnedjou Francoise Foute Nwabufo ( Adventist University, Cameroon)
• Tibeb Zena Debele ( University of Gondar, Ethiopia)
• Dr Shirnett Khorran-Gajaraj ( US Department of Veterans Affairs, Atlanta, USA)
• Stembile Mugore (World Vision, USA)
• Dr Umar Ibrahim (Federal University, Dutse, Nigeria)
• Dr Ayesha Calmerin Penuela ( West Visayas State University, Phillipines)
• Professor Zahrah Saad ( Mahsa University, Malaysia)

• Dr Ernestina Asiedua ( University of Ghana, Ghana)
• Dr Amy R Clithero ( University of New Mexico, USA)
• Dr Sherphard Chidarikire (University of Tasmania, Australia)

The Editorial Process

The manuscripts will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that they are being submitted to one journal at a time and have not been published, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere. On average, 75-90% of the manuscripts are rejected by the editors before a formal peer-review. The Managing Editor or Associate Editor review all submitted manuscripts initially. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific and technical flaws or lack of a significant message are rejected. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged. Manuscripts are sent to two or more expert reviewers without revealing the identity of the contributors to the reviewers. Each manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team, who based on the comments from the reviewers takes a final decision on the manuscript. The contributors will be informed about the reviewers' comments and acceptance/rejection of the manuscript. The average submission to first decision time is about 5 weeks and about 85% of unsolicited manuscripts do not get published. Articles accepted would be copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author, which has to be returned within five days. Correction received after that period may not be included.

Authorship Criteria

Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions 1. Conception and design or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data; 2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3. Final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Each contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript. Once submitted the order cannot be changed without the written consent of all the contributors. For a study from a single institute, the number of contributors should not exceed six. For a case report, images, letter to the editor and review article the number of contributors should not exceed four. A justification should be included if the number of contributors exceeds these limits. Only those who have done substantial work in a particular field can write a review article. A short summary of the work done by the contributor(s) in the field of review should accompany the manuscript. The journal expects the contributors to give post-publication updates on the subject of review. The update should be brief, covering the advances in the field after the publication of an article and should be sent as a letter to the editor, as and when major development occurs in the field.

Contribution Details Contributors should provide a description of what each of them contributed to the manuscript. The description should be divided into the following categories, as applicable: concepts, design, the definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review. The authors' contributions will be printed on the first page of the article. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article and should be designated as 'guarantor'.

Conflict of Interest

All authors of submitting articles to the journal must disclose any conflict of interest they may have with an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose conflicts of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript. The Editor will discuss with the authors on an individual basis the method by which any conflicts of interest will be communicated to the readers.

Copies of any permission(s)

To reproduce published material, and to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people a copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript. The manuscript should be sent to AHRO Review of Food Sciences & Nutrition, c/o AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd, 272 Bath Street Glasgow G2 4JR Scotland.

Preparation of the Manuscript

1. Original articles: Randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, outcome studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rates. Up to 3000 words excluding about 30 references and abstract.

2. Review articles: Systemic critical assessments of literature and data sources. Up to 4000 words excluding about 90 references and abstract. For review articles, include the method (literature search) in the abstract as well as in the introduction section.

3. Case reports: new/interesting/very rare cases can be reported. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. However, mere reporting of a rare case may not be considered. Up to 1000 words excluding references and abstract and up to 10 references.

4. Images in Clinical Nursing: a short history, photograph, differential diagnosis, and short discussion of classic and/or rare cases. Should not be more than 800 words excluding up to six references.

5. Letter to the Editor: This should be a short, decisive observation. They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation. Up to 500 words and 5 references.

6. Obituaries: Tributes to late eminent individuals whose contributions to Medical Science were a phenomenon. Up to 300 words.

7. Announcements of conferences, meetings, courses, and other items likely to be of interest to the readers should be submitted with the name and address of the person from whom additional information can be obtained.

8. Technical Report

The text of original articles should be divided into sections with the headings: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables and Figure legends. For a brief report include Abstract, Key-words Introduction, Case report, Discussion, Reference, Tables and Legends in that order.

Do not use subheadings in these sections. Use double spacing throughout. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. The language should be American English.

Title Page

The title page should carry

1. Type of manuscript (e.g. Original article, Case Report)

2. The title of the article, which should be concise, but informative;

3. Running title or short title, not more than 50 characters;

4. The name by which each contributor is known (Last name, First name and initials of middle name), with his or her highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation;

5. The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed; 6. The name, address, phone numbers, facsimile numbers and e-mail address of the contributor responsible for correspondence about the manuscript;

7. The total number of pages, the total number of photographs and word counts separately for abstract and for the text (excluding the references and abstract);

8. Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these;

9. Acknowledgement, if any; one or more statements should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chair; 2) acknowledgements of technical help; and 3) acknowledgements of financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support. This should be included in the title page of the manuscript and not in the main article file.

10. If the manuscript was presented as part of a meeting, the organization, place, and exact date on which it was read.

11. Registration number of clinical trials.

Abstract Page

The second page should carry the full title of the manuscript and an abstract (of no more than 150 words for brief reports and 250 words for original articles and other article types). The abstract should be structured for original articles. State the context (background), aims, settings and design, material and methods, statistical analysis used, results and conclusions. Below the abstract should provide 3 to 8 keywords. The abstract should not be structured for a brief report, review article, symposia and research methodology. Do not include references in the abstract. Introduction State the purpose and summarize the rationale for the study or observation.

Non-English speaking authors can write a summary of their work in their local language.

Introduction:  The introduction should:

• Provide background that puts the manuscript into context and allow readers outside the field to understand the purpose and significance of the study.
• Define the problem addressed and why it is important
• Include a brief review of the key literature
• Note any relevant controversies or disagreements in the field
• Conclude with a brief statement of the overall aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved

Materials and Methods: The Methods section should only include information that was available at the time the study was planned or protocol written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs to the results section. Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear, authors should explain their use when they are included in a study report; for example, authors should explain why only subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded. The guiding principle should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. When authors use variables such as race or ethnicity, they should define how they measured the variables and justify their relevance. Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (http://www.consort-statement.org). Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs Initiative Type of study Source CONSORT randomized controlled trials http://www.consort-statement.org STARD studies of diagnostic accuracy http://www.consortstatement.org/stardstatement.htm QUOROM systematic reviews and meta-analyses http://www.consortstatement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf STROBE observational studies in epidemiology http://www.strobe-statement.org MOOSE meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology http://www.consortstatement.org/Initiatives/MOOSE/moose.pdf

Note: Authors submitting review articles should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

Ethics:  When reporting studies on humans indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at http://www.wma.net/e/policy/17-c_e.html). Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institutions or a national research council’s guide for or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Evidence for approval by a local Ethics Committee (for both human as well as animal studies) must be supplied by the authors on demand. Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anaesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated. The ethical standards of experiments must be in accordance with the guidelines provided by the CPCSEA (animal) and ICMR (human). The journal will not consider any paper which is ethically unacceptable. A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Materials and Methods section. Statistics Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048). For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001. Results Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. "Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included. Discussion Include a summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research). Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In particular, contributors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such.

References: References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order).

References should be 10 years old or less. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript with square bracket after the punctuation marks.  References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. Use the style of the examples below, which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Use the complete name of the journal for nonindexed journals. Avoid using abstracts as references.  Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.  The commonly cited types of references are shown here, for other types of references such as electronic media; newspaper items, etc. please refer to ICMJE Guidelines (http://www.icmje.org or http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html). Download a PowerPoint presentation on common reference styles and use the reference checking facility on the manuscript submission site.

Articles in Journals

1. Standard journal article: Bavdekar SB, Gogtay NJ, Muzumdar D, Vaideeswar P, Salvi V, Sarkar M. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine: The path ahead. J Postgrad Med 2007;53:153-3. List the first six contributors followed by et al.
2. Volume with supplement: Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1:275-82.
3. The issue with supplement: Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996; 23(1, Suppl 2):89-97. Books and Other Monographs
4. Personal author(s): Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.
5. Editor(s), compiler(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.
6. Chapter in a book: Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. pp. 465-78.

Tables

• Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material.

• Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.

• Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.

• Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.

• Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table.

• Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.

• For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, , **, ††, ‡‡

• Tables with their legends should be provided at the end of the text after the references. The tables along with their number should be cited at the relevant place in the text Illustrations (Figures)

• Upload the images in JPEG format. The file size should be within 4 MB in size while uploading. Send sharp, glossy, un-mounted, colour photographic prints, with a height of 4 inches and a width of 6 inches at the time of submitting the revised manuscript.

• Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.

• Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column.

• Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.

• Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.

• When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.

• The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.

• If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

• If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.

• Legends for illustrations: Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

• Final figures for print production: If the uploaded images are not printable quality, the publisher office may request higher resolution images which can be sent at the time of acceptance of the manuscript. Printouts of digital photographs are not acceptable. If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has a minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format. Send the images on a CD. Each figure should have a label pasted (avoid the use of liquid gum for pasting) on its back indicating the number of the figure, the running title, top of the figure and the legends of the figure. Do not write the contributor/s' name/s. Do not write on the back of figures, scratch them, or mark them by using paper clips.

• The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size. Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients.

The journal abides by ICMJE guidelines:

1) Authors, neither the journals nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.

2) If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity or a description that has an obvious indication of the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript. Case Reports Case reports must meet all of the following criteria: 1. the case should be one that is highly unusual, very unique, underreported in the literature and; 2. the case report must present as a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem and;

3. The case report must have significant educational value including the ability to perhaps change a clinician's traditional method of handling such a case and;

4. The case report's interest to the reader should be significant. Preparation of Case Reports Follow the standard format for the article (Abstract, Key-words, Introduction, Case History, Discussion and References). Submitting a Revised Manuscript While submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to include, the ‘referees’ remarks along with point to point clarification at the beginning in the revised file itself. In addition, mark the changes as underlined or colour text in the article. A photocopy of the first page of all the cited references (articles and books) can be asked by the journal to verify the references.

Article Processing Charges

Authors can publish and make their research work open access in all the journals of AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd. All the articles are available free for the readers to read, download in any format. The work can be copied and redistributed the material in any medium or format, provided that the original work is properly cited, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. To support the publication cost an article processing fee will be charged from the author. Article Processing Charges are needed to be paid by the author or the organization once the article is accepted for publication.   The publication fee of an article is $500 plus VAT for all article types except Letters, Short communication and Commentary, which is$200 plus VAT.  Articles for special issues are charged $600. Waiver Policy: AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd operates several waiver policies. It should be noted that the decision of whether to accept a paper for publication will rest solely with the Editors, without reference to the funding situation of the authors. The Editors, editorial board members, and reviewers will have no involvement with the billing of APCs and cannot grant waivers. To be considered for a waiver, 1. The author(s) must request a waiver at or before submission before an article enters editorial consideration by contacting the Publisher. 2. The author(s) must provide documentary evidence for their request. 3. The waiver request should be processed by the managing editor, without the knowledge of the editorial board. 4. The waiver request should be processed as soon as possible before the article moves from submission to editorial consideration. 5. The decision to approve or decline the waiver request should be based on the credibility of the evidence the author provides and the author following the journal’s waiver request procedure Copyright Notice Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Privacy Statement The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. Checklist Covering letter • Signed by all contributors • Previous publication / presentations mentioned • Source of funding mentioned • Conflicts of interest disclosed Authors • Middle name initials provided • Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided • Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions • Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.) Presentation and format • Double spacing • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides • Title page contains all the desired information • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters) • Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript • Abstract provided (about 150 words for case reports and 250 words for original articles) • Structured abstract provided for an original article • Keywords provided (three or more) • Introduction of 75-100 words • Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS) • The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket. • References according to the journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked • Send the final article file without ‘Track Changes’ Language and grammar • Uniformly American English • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out • Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors • If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer's name and address (city and state/country). • Species names should be in italics Tables and figures • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text • Actual numbers from which graphs are drawn, provided • Figures necessary and of good quality (colour) • Table and figure numbers o Labels pasted on the back of the photographs (no names written) o Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words) • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken) • A credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided • Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote Copyediting manuscripts Prior to submission, authors who believe their manuscript would benefit from professional editing are encouraged to use language-editing and copyediting services. Obtaining these services is the responsibility of the authors and should be done before initial submission. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd provides copyediting services. Email: ahrojournals@oitlook.com for further details. Editors AHRO Review of Nursing -Open Access uses online manuscript submission, review and editorial tracking systems for quality and quick review processing. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd uses Online Review and Editorial Managing System for quality peer-review process. Editorial Managing System is an online submission and review system where authors can submit manuscripts and track their progress. Reviewers can also submit their opinions. Editors can manage the whole submission/ review/ revise/ publish process. Submit manuscript at https://www.scienceopen.com/collection/70103b8a-3343-4bc4-a4d6-ac6d99436383/upload-preprint?49 Or send us an e-mail attachment to the editorial office at ahrojournals@outlook.com. The timeline for a submitted article is: • 21-day rapid review process with international peer-review standards • The timeline of processing from Submission to Publication is 45 days • The Manuscript will be published within 7 days of acceptance ### Editors Our publishing support provides information and guidance to assist you publish your research with ASPL. Librarians We are committed to working with libraries around the world to maximise the use of AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd’s contents. We work in collaboration with a team of librarians around the globe who form ‘Council of Librarians Advisory Board’. Members of the board are consulted on books to be written by AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd as well as journals to be initiated by the company. The aim of the company in engaging these eminent librarians is forge a working relationship that would results in the publication of valuable and relevant contents and resources that would advance scientific knowledge. For further information, click on ‘Initiative’ page. For Authors Peer Review AHRO Reviews of Nursing just like all AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd journals follow ‘double blind’ process of peer review. Below is a description of the process: • After submission, the editor in chief initially checks the article to analyse if it meet the journal’s editorial objective. About 85% of articles are rejected at this phase. • In phase 2, having passed the initial phase, the editor in chief or the editor selects up to 3 reviewers and ask them to evaluate the manuscript against a set of criteria. • The editor in chief receives reviewers’ recommendation and makes final decision taking into account the recommendation of the reviewers. • There are 3 decisions: Accept, Reject, or Revise. • If the recommendation is to revise, message is relayed to the corresponding author. • Authors resubmit their revised paper. • The editor in chief sends the revised paper to the same reviewers. Below are some of the prospective questions editors ask reviewers • Does the article or case study say something original? Does it add to the body of knowledge? • If it is a case study, is this its first use? • If its research is the design, methodology, theoretical approach and critical review sound? • Are the results well-presented and have they been correctly interpreted? Is the analysis sufficiently rigorous? • Is the submission set in the context of the wider literature? • Are there sufficient relevant citations? • Are these well referenced and are other people's views credited? • Is the submission accurate? • Is any information missing or wrong? • Does the title of the submission accurately reflect the contents? • How useful would the submission be to a professional or student? • Is it an example of “good practice”? • If research-focused, could the study be replicated in other situations? Submissions from the Editor-in-Chief will undergo independent peer-review and will be submitted to another Editor for his decision on acceptance. Copyediting and Proofs Articles and eBook chapters must be written in good English in a clear and correct style in order to maintain uniformity throughout the text. Articles/chapters submitted are copyedited before they are published. Reprints High-quality, bound/unbound, print/e-prints can be purchased for all published articles and book chapters. Editorial Policies Articles must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required to submit a Submission Letter along with the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained. ACMPH comply with 140C standards for open citation. The 140C standard recommends that citations are structured, separable, and open. Click here for details Repository Policy Author Self-Archiving Policy As journals published by AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd are an Open Access journals, authors are entitled to make their article publicly available according to the terms of the CC BY licence: • CC BY-NC • Authors who have published under a CC BY-NC 4.0 licence may share and distribute their article on non-commercial websites and repositories. Re-use guidelines for open access content When posting, distributing or reusing Open Access articles, the journals should be clearly attributed as the original place of publication and correct citation details should be given. Authors should also deposit the URL/DOI of their published article in any repository, in addition to the Version of Record. When making their article available according to the terms of their Open Access licence, we strongly encourage authors to deposit the Version of Record. This will guarantee that the definitive version is readily available to those accessing your article from such repositories and means that your article is more likely to be cited correctly. As there are many ways you can share the different versions of your article as it moves through the stages towards publication a summary is provided as follows. Article versions Author’s Original Manuscript (AOM) This author’s original manuscript before you submitted it to a journal for peer review. Authors can share your AOM as much as you like, including via social media, on a scholarly collaboration network, your own personal website, or on a preprint server intended for non-commercial use (for example arXiv, bioRxiv, SocArXiv, etc.). Posting on a preprint server is not considered to be duplicate publication. If you do decide to post your AOM anywhere, we ask that, upon acceptance, you acknowledge that the article has been accepted for publication as follows: This article has been accepted for publication in AHRO Reviews of Nursing’. Accepted manuscript (AM) This is your article is accepted for publication it becomes the Accepted Manuscript. This version has been through the peer review process and been accepted by a journal editor. When you receive the acceptance email from the Editorial Office, keep a copy of your AM for any future posting. Authors can post your Accepted Manuscript (AM) at any point after acceptance (this includes posting to Facebook, Google groups, and LinkedIn, plus linking from Twitter). To encourage citation of your work, we recommend that you insert a link from your posted AM to the published article with the following text, including the DOI: “This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in AHRO Reviews of Nursing on [date of publication], [Article DOI].” Version of Record (VOR) This is the final, definitive, citable version of your paper, which has been copyedited, typeset, had metadata applied, and has been allocated a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). This is the published version. You can share your article as follows: On publication you can link to the VOR using the DOI or you can post the article PDF on any non-commercial websites and repositories. Connecting the different versions of your article By the time your article is published, you may have already shared your AOM and AM in various places. It is a good idea to link these to the VOR after publication, by adding some text such as: “This is an [Accepted Manuscript / Author’s Original Manuscript] of an article published in AHRO Reviews of Nursing on [date of publication], available at [Article DOI].” By using a link containing the DOI, article downloads, Altmetric data, and citations can all be tracked and collated. All this data can help you to assess the impact of your work. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd conforms to the recommendations of Sherpa Romeo. Click here Archiving Policy Advertising Policy Below are our policies for advertisers: All advertisements and commercially sponsored publications are independent from editorial decisions. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd does not endorse any product or service marked as an advertisement or promoted by a sponsor in AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd publications. Editorial content is not compromised by commercial or financial interests, or by any specific arrangements with advertising clients or sponsors. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd reserves the right to decline any type of advertising that is damaging to the brand of AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd or is inappropriate to the content held on the AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd network. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd will not accept advertising for products or services known to be harmful to health (e.g. tobacco and alcohol products). Advertisements may not be deceptive or misleading, and must be verifiable. Advertisements should clearly identify the advertiser and the product or service being offered. Exaggerated or extravagantly worded copy will not be allowed. Advertisements will not be accepted if they appear to be indecent or offensive in either text or artwork, or if they relate to content of a personal, racial, ethnic, sexual orientation, or religious nature. Once an advertisement has been deployed online, it will be withdrawn from the journal site at any time if the Editor(s)-in-Chief or Publisher requests its removal. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd will not allow any treatment-specific or drug-specific campaign to be targeted to a specific article(s) or on any page where content relates to the product(s) being advertised. (Advertisers may not link to articles using keywords; they may not target advertising for a specific product on the condition that it appear in the same location and at the same time as a specific article mentioning that product and they may not refer to an article published at the same time as the advertisement appears). All advertisements for drug-specific campaigns must comply with the relevant European and UK legislation that regulates advertising. Information about the latest legislation, as well as good practice guidelines, can be found on the MHRA website. Advertisers should make available to AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd the marketing authorization and summary of product characteristics when submitting their advertisement. In the case of drug advertisements, the full generic name of each active ingredient should appear. Each page of an advertisement for a prescription-only medicine should be clearly labelled as intended for health professionals. All advertisements for drug specific campaigns should encourage correct and rational use and must not be misleading. Advertisements and editorial content must be clearly distinguishable. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd will not publish “advertorial” content, and sponsored supplements must be clearly indicated as such. If a supplement did not undergo peer review or underwent a peer review-process different from the rest of the journal that should be explicitly stated. Editorial decisions will not be influenced by current or potential sponsors and advertisers, and will not be influenced by marketing decisions. Advertisers and sponsors have no control or influence over the results of searches a user may conduct on the website by keyword or search topic. If any advert is requested outside of AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd standard advertising positions then a request should be made to editorial who will respond with a full and final decision within two business days. Information about complaints concerning advertisements will be included in the Advertisements page. We partner with third-party advertising companies to serve ads and/or collect certain information when you visit our website. These companies may use cookies or web beacons to collect non-personally identifiable information [not including your name, address, email address or telephone number] during your visit to this website to help show advertisements on other websites also likely to be of interest to you. To learn more about this “behavioral advertising” practice or to opt-out of this use of your anonymous information, you can visit here Advertising complaints policy Please send any complaints about advertising to: ahrojournals@outlook.com Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) The Advertising Standards Authority investigates complaints about published medicines advertisements and ensures compliance with the British Codes of Advertising and Sales Promotion which include a section on medicines advertising. It also monitors advertising in the press, direct marketing and sales promotion and on the Internet. Advertisements directed at health professionals are exempt from the British Codes of Advertising and Sales Promotion. The Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority (PMCPA) Complaints about the advertising of medicines supplied on prescription are considered by the Prescription Medicines Code of Practice Authority under the ABPI Code of Practice for the Pharmaceutical Industry. Complaints which are made under the Code about promotional activities and promotional material are considered by the Code of Practice Panel, the decisions of which can be appealed to the Code of Practice Appeal Board. Reports on completed cases are published quarterly in the Code of Practice Review. Appeals and Complaints Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who think that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be considered as an appeal. The EIC and other relevant editors will consider the appeal and the decision thereafter taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript, and the reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision. Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be emailed to info@ahroeop.org Conflict of Interest Financial contributions to the work being reported should be clearly acknowledged, as should any potential conflict of interest. Plagiarism Prevention AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd uses the Turnitin software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Turnitin software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage of overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd allows an overall similarity of 15% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. Copyright and License Accepted articles can be published online for free open access. Open access publishing provides maximum dissemination of the article to the largest audience. Ahead of Print In order to provide our readers timely access to new content, articles accepted by ATMPH are posted online ahead of print publication. Articles that have been accepted for publications are peer-reviewed and copy edited but do not incorporate all correction or means it is the final version that will appear in the journal. Final, corrected articles will be published online concurrently with the release of the print issue. HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS All clinical investigations should be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki principles. For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, formal review and approval by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee are required. For research involving animals, the authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the standards set forth in the eighth edition of “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” (grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals_prepub.pdf published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.). Research Involving Animals Research work on animals should be carried out in accordance with the NC3Rs ARRIVE Guidelines. For In Vivo Experiments, please visit https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines Authors should clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting that legal and ethical approvals were obtained prior to initiation of the research work carried out on animals, and that the experiments were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations stated below. Research Involving Plants All experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild), should comply with international guidelines. The manuscript should include a declaration of compliance of field studies with relevant guidelines and/or relevant permissions or licenses obtained by the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Patient Consent Compliance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors www.icmje.org) is recommended, in accordance with the patient’s consent for research or participation in a study as per the applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") and other U.S. federal and state laws relating to confidentiality and security of personally distinguishable evidence, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 and member state implementing legislation, Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, India's Information Technology Act and related Privacy Rules, (together "Data Protection and Privacy Laws"). It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that: • Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers are not mentioned anywhere in the manuscript (including figures). • Authors are responsible for obtaining the patient consent-to-disclose forms for all recognizable patients in photographs, videos, or other information that may be published in the Journal, in derivative works, or on the journal’s web site and for providing the manuscript to the recognizable patient for review before submission. • The consent-to-disclose form should indicate specific use (publication in the medical literature in print and online, with the understanding that patients and the public will have access) of the patient's information and any images in figures or videos, and must contain the patient's signature or that of a legal guardian along with a statement that the patient or legal guardian has been offered the opportunity to review the identifying materials and the accompanying manuscript. • If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal details, audio-video material, etc., consent should be obtained from that individual. In case of children, consent should be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian. • A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form must be made in the copyright letter and in a stand-alone paragraph at the end of the article especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must. The original should be retained by the guarantor or the corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the original forms by fax or email. • All such case reports require by a proper consent being obtained prior to publishing The Editor In Chief may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfil the above-mentioned requirements. Non-identifiable Images Anonymous images, that do not identify the individual directly or indirectly, such as through any identifying marks or text, do not require formal consent, for example, X-rays, ultrasound images, pathology slides or laparoscopic images. In case consent is not obtained, concealing the identity through eye bars or blurring the face would not be acceptable. Conclusion • Author(s) and Reviewers must be informed in case of misinterpretation or mishandling of International Acceptable Standards • A strict notice should be sent to the author and reviewer to avoid future unethical misconduct • An Editorial on the reported misconduct should be published or official notice of unethical behaviour should be posted on the website • Official letter about this misconduct should be issued to the Head of Departments, Funding Agencies of the accused author and the reviewer, as well as Abstracting & Indexing Agencies • Where required, retraction and withdrawal of publication may be undertaken from the Publisher’s journal in discussion with the Head of the Department of the author or reviewer, and other higher authorities should be informed The Publisher may impose restrictions for some period on future publications from the accused author in the journals Errata and Corrections in Published Articles Authors and readers are encouraged to notify the Editor-in-Chief if they find errors in published content, authors’ names and affiliations or if they have reasons for concern over the legitimacy of a publication. In such cases the journal will publish an ERRATUM in consultation with Editor-in-Chief and authors of the article, and/or replace or retract the article. Article Withdrawal Articles in Press (articles that have been accepted for publication or published as E-pub Ahead of Schedule but which have not been formally published with volume/issue/page information) that include errors, or are determined to violate the publishing ethics guidelines such as multiple submission, fake claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like, may be “Withdrawn” from the journal. Withdrawal means that the article files are removed and replaced with a PDF stating that the article has been withdrawn from the journal in accordance with AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd Editorial Policies. Article Retraction If any manuscripts are published, having certain assigned information of volume / issue / page number, and it is found that there are infringements of professional ethical codes in their content, such as plagiarism, excess similarity with some other article, fraudulent use of data, etc., then such manuscripts are retracted. • A retraction note entitled “Retraction: [article title]” (for example Retraction: ABC experiment involving XYZ species) is published in the paginated part of the next scheduled issue of the journal and is also listed in the table of contents. • The retraction note is approved by the Editor-in-Chief of the concerned journal. • A link to the original article is displayed in the online (electronic) version. • A screen containing the note of retraction appears before the electronic version of the article present on the website. On the screen, a link for the complete article is present, i.e. to access the retracted article. • The link / webpage of the original article remains unchanged, however a watermark is shaded on its downloadable PDF document, in order to explicitly give the message that the article was retracted. Concurrent Publication/Simultaneous Submission It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to the AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Abstracts and posters of conferences, results presented at meetings (for example, to inform investigators or participants about findings), results databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context or conclusions in the form of tables and text to describe data/information where this is not easily presented in tabular form) are not considered prior publication. Authors who wish to publish translations of the articles that have been published elsewhere should ensure that they have appropriate permission(s), indicate clearly that the material has been translated and re-published, and indicate clearly the original source of the material. The Editor-in-Chief may request copies of related publications if he/she is concerned about overlap and possible redundancy. Some authors engage in sending their articles to different journals which contravene our policy of submitting articles that have not been submitted to another journal. After the publication, if authors revert asking for the journal to withdraw their article. If any author should engage in this unethical behaviour, the journal should charge the author$1000 before such withdrawal.

PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION:

Disclaimer

Responsibility for the content published by AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd in any of its journals, including any opinions expressed therein, rests exclusively with the author(s) of such content. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd (on its own behalf, and on behalf of its staff and members of its editorial board) disclaims responsibility for any and all injury and/or damage (whether financial or otherwise) to persons or property, resulting directly or indirectly from any ideas, methods, instructions or products (including errors in the same) referred to in the content of any of AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd’s journals. Any dispute arising, including any claim shall be governed exclusively by the laws of Scotland.

Fabricating and Stating False Information

To ensure the scholarly integrity of every article, AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd will publish post-publication notices. The authors of the published articles, or those who have submitted the manuscripts with false information, or fabricated the supporting data or images, will be liable for sanctions, and their papers will be retracted.

Correction Notice

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd will issue a correction notice in case of any correction or omission causing a change in interpretation of the article. This applies to the cases, including mislabelled figures, missing integral funding and/or other information, and authors' competing interests.

There can be major or minor errors/ corrections. Major inaccuracies or omissions may be any changes, which affects the clarity and integrity of an article. Minor errors do not affect the overall meaning of the text.

A separate correction notice will accompany the major errors/ corrections. The correction notice will provide precise details of the mistakes and the revisions/alterations that have been incorporated in the final version.

To rectify the significant error or omission, we will:  Amend the online version of the article, issue a separate correction notice that will be connected to the revised version of the article and add a footnote to the article, which will be hyperlinked to the correction notice.

There will be no separate correction notice for minor errors/ corrections. Again, a footnote will be added to the article stating that it has been modified to update the readers. Any decision to issue retraction notice for an article will be taken in accordance with COPE guidelines available at: https://publicationethics.org/files/Fabricated%20data%20B.pdf

Correction Notice for Articles in Press

Articles in Press (articles that have been accepted for publication or published as E-pub Ahead of Schedule but which have not been formally published with volume/issue/page information) that include errors, or are determined to violate the publishing ethics guidelines such as multiple submission, fake claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like, may be “Withdrawn” from the journal. Withdrawal means that the article files are removed and replaced with a PDF stating that the article has been withdrawn from the journal in accordance with our Editorial Policies.

Copied Submission and Redundant Publication

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd journals ensure that the research work is original and unpublished electronically or in print. Only research that represents original work or a thesis available on a preprint server, and is not published anywhere else is considered.

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd journals only cater to those articles which are not submitted elsewhere for publication at the same. Those authors who have made simultaneous submissions may be liable to penalty. The authors must cite the previous research work and specify how their submitted manuscript varies from their previous articles. The authors will be asked to provide a reference for their earlier research work, published or under review in order to meet the criteria of manuscript submission. In case of the author uses his own text from the previous publication other than the Methods section, then it should be mentioned in the text. Consent from the copyright holder must be required in cases where the authors reuse figures or a considerable number of words.

For the projects presented at conferences, AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd will consider the extended versions of the manuscripts provided this is declared in the cover letter. Furthermore, the article should have the previous version cited and mentioned, and there is unpublished and original content, and any necessary permission has been obtained.

The redundant publication refers to the publication of the same data more than once, resulting in rejection or a request to merge the submitted manuscripts and the rectification of published manuscripts. Seriously flawed or misleading content (plagiarised publication) may cause retraction of the article, and the authors may be penalized.

Manipulation of Citations

Authors with the aim just to increase the number of citations to a given author’s research work or the manuscripts previously published in a particular journal may result in sanctions for the author. Similarly, the editors and reviewers should not encourage authors to add references just to increase citations to their own or an associate’s work, to the journal, or to another journal they are associated with.

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd ONLY accepts articles written in good English. A scientifically sound and grammatically correct article leaves a greater impact on the reader. Our copyeditors ensure the usage of correct grammar and spelling, consistent terminology and accurate punctuation.

ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGES

The costs associated with high-quality open access publishing in AHRO Scientific Publishing journals are covered by article publication charges (APCs), which can be paid by institutions, funders or researchers. In some cases, the cost of APCs is sponsored in full or in part by AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd partners. APC prices are listed on each journal website and included in the full price list below. Where APCs apply, they are only charged once an article has been accepted for publication. There is no charge if an article is rejected (before or after peer review), and there are no submission fees.

# What costs does an AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd journal incur?

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd strives to uphold the highest publishing standards, and we endeavour to minimise the time required of the research community in the setting-up and running of journals, enabling scientists to spend maximum time on their own research.

Some of the main costs we incur in publishing high-quality journals include:

• Peer review: AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd’s editorial staffs manage all the operational aspects of peer review, ensuring the fairness, timeliness and thoroughness of the peer-review process and enabling scientific experts to focus on assessing the scientific value of suitable and relevant papers. Our editorial staffs also provide regular advice and training to experienced and new peer reviewers. The peer review workflow is managed via an industry-leading digital system, and the process is overseen in accordance with the very latest ethical and research integrity standards.
• Editorial development: AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd’s editorial staffs also manage the process of developing the scientific scope of each journal, recruiting and consulting the journal’s advisory board, and taking responsibility for the active commissioning of high-quality content.
• Production: All accepted articles undergo language assessment and copy-editing as well as conversion to XML and the creation of industry-standard formats for digital distribution. Some subscription journals will also be printed and distributed to readers internationally in print form
• Online dissemination: Articles are published on our wholly-owned and developed platform to ensure global visibility and perpetual online hosting and archiving. Discovery of the article is maximised through content APIs and feeds to external indexes such as Web of Science and Scopus.
• Content marketing and licensing: AHRO Scientific Publishing staffs seek all available avenues to attract submissions and to promote articles through print and digital formats, including social media and regular attendance at academic conferences. Our staffs also work with university and industry libraries around the world to facilitate the licensing of content for use by research faculty and students. These licensing agreements increasingly incorporate arrangements to cover or discount the costs of open access publication for the institution’s researchers.

## APC pricing

Whilst all AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd journals apply the same high standards of peer review and publication, they may have different APC prices. Differences can be determined by a number of factors, including:

• Rejection rate: the ratio of accepted articles to the total number of manuscripts received.
• Development intensity: The degree and proportion of editorial development work conducted by journal staff compared to external academics.
• Editing: The average level of language editing, formatting and structuring of an article required and the make-up of the content in terms of equations, figures, data etc.
• Marketing intensity: The degree of promotional activity required to attract authors and readers and ensure visibility and impact of journals and their articles.
• Custom services: Other customised editorial activities or technical functionality offered by the journal, such as open data validation or embedded multimedia content.

## Open access refund policy

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd endeavours to publish every open access article on the terms agreed with the authors and without delay. If you or your institution is unhappy with any aspect of the open access publishing service, you should contact the journal. Every effort will be made to respond to any deficiencies in service without delay. Where service fails to meet our high standards, you may be offered, on request and at the publisher’s discretion, a refund of part of the APC or a credit towards future publications.

### Editors

Current

Archives

If you have any questions related to any of our journals do not hesitate to contact the Editorial Board by email at: ahrojournals@outlook.com.

Office Address: 272 Bath Street, Glasgow GA2 4JR Scotland UK

### Editors

AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd recognizes the importance of enhancing the visibility and discoverability of published research by including published articles in abstracting and indexing databases that researchers use. We support the work of these indexes by providing researchers with access to all our published proceedings volume upon publication. However, we do not have an influence on the timeframe for indexing on the databases. It is up to the provider to decide how quickly to index any volume. ARN is indexed in a number of databases including

• I affirm that this article is my own work and that of my co-authors, that we have no unstated conflicts of interest, and, if applicable, that the material presented has been acquired according to ethical standards and approved by legally appropriate ethical committee(s).
• I agree to the publication of this article open access in the journal [Journal Title] with a Creative Commons Attribution License in accordance with the terms of the AHRO Author Agreement [LINK]. I understand that if this article is approved for publication I will be required to pay an Article Processing Charge (APC) of $500 for original articles and$200 for case-studies

### Editors

AHRO Organizes a number of events.

• Glasgow International Health Festival: Glasgow International Health Festival 2022 (GIHF 2022) would bring together experts and stakeholders in global health to brainstorm through some of the latest data. The event would bring together 500 participants and 10 exhibitors on 24-27 August 2022 under the theme: "Innovation for global health". The event starts on the 24 August 2022 with the "Global Health Walk". For more information and registration, visit: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/glasgow-international-health-festival-tickets-292064491757. Prospetive authors can send their manuscripts to: ahrojournals@outlook.com

AHRO Review of Nursing & Midwifery  is an international open-access journal published by AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd, a branch of Africa Health Research Organization. AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd charges article processing charge (APC) of 500 (USD) to publish research and review articles. Once published, the article processing fee is not refundable. If the author(s) requests a withdrawal of the manuscript, after the peer review process or in the production stage (early release or ahead of publishing) or published online; then the authors need to make a withdrawal penalty (50% of APC). The withdrawal request should be sent to: Editor In Chief (ahrojournals@outlook.com). Invoice paid towards article processing charges will not be refunded if the article is withdrawn after publication.

Invoices for the articles will be prepared according to the income of the countries (More information).

Reprints

Article-processing charges (APC) do not entitle the authors to receive reprints of their published articles. Reprints can be ordered separately and optionally for any article that has been published in any AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd’s journal.

Subscription

To minimize the article processing fee, AHRO Scientific Publishing Ltd recommends individuals, institutes, universities, and industries to take yearly subscriptions to the journal of their choice and publish unlimited content. These subscriptions also vary based on the income of the countries (More information)

Subscription Types

 Subscription Type High Income Countries Middle Income Countries Low Middle Income Countries Low Income Countries Individual $2000$1550 $1250$1000 Institute/ University $4000$3100 $2500$1000 Societies//Industry $5000$4100 $3500$2000

Post subscription if they fail to publish any articles in the first year of subscription 5 articles free buffer will be added to the second year even without a subscription.