The human ability to represent the world in our minds in the absence of a sensory stimulus is a pivotal aspect of our mental life, allowing us, for example, to navigate the complex social environments in which we live and to mentally time travel to the past or the future. Because imagery has such a diverse impact on individuals and societies, research has been pursued by scholars from various disciplines including philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience. However, not much is known about how music can be used to regulate such mental processes. “Music and Mental Imagery” is a new and burgeoning area of research, with substantial potential to advance our understanding of the role and function of imagery for human beings. Because disconnected efforts have been undertaken separately, there is a need for greater communication among researchers. The goal of this collection is to share and highlight new publications in this area of research, forging cross-disciplinary collaborations and advancing knowledge on this subject.