Bentham Science - Open Access

Bentham Science is a science, technology, and medical publisher, providing academic researchers and industrial professionals with the latest information in diverse fields of science and technology.


Bentham Science




Bentham Science is a science, technology, and medical publisher, providing academic researchers and industrial professionals with the latest information in diverse fields of science and technology. Our peer-reviewed scholarly journals and books (under the Bentham Books brand) have an ever-increasing readership of millions of researchers worldwide.

Bentham Science was originally incorporated in the Netherlands. We are now a multinational company based in UAE and have employees in the USA, the Netherlands, Spain, India, and China. Bentham Science also outsources its publishing services to several countries, including the UK, China, and Pakistan.

Bentham Science currently publishes more than 130 journals in both electronic and printed formats. Our journals cover various disciplines in pharmaceutical research and development, medical subspecialties, engineering, technology, and social sciences. The journals are indexed in recognized indexing agencies, information of our journals' indexation by various indexing agencies can be viewed. at

66 Bentham Science journals have received impact factor rankings in the annual Journal Citation Report 2023. For more information, click here:



Submission process


Manuscripts submitted for publication in Bentham Science journals are subjected to double blind peer-review. The identities of both the reviewer and author are kept undisclosed to each other, ensuring anonymity and maintaining confidentiality throughout the entire review procedure. The anonymity of reviewers ensures an objective and unbiased assessment of the manuscript by the reviewers. Publishers recommend that reviewers review COPE Ethical Guidelines to provide quality unbiased review reports. Please read the complete guidelines at the Committee on Publication Ethics available at

All submitted articles/eBook chapters are subjected to an extensive peer review in consultation with members of the journal's editorial board and independent external reviewers (usually three reviewers). All manuscripts/chapters are assessed and the decision is taken by the journal's Editor-in-Chief/eBook Editor keeping in view all the peer reviewers' comments. The final decision is then conveyed to the author(s).

Since reviewers play an essential role in maintaining the integrity and accuracy of the research, therefore to acknowledge their role, Bentham Science has made its publications and review information available on Publons. Publons provides a formal recognition to our peer reviewers by displaying a verified record of their peer review and editorial contributions for academic journals on their website. For more information, click here:



In addition to the wide range of scientific journals, Bentham Science has a book publishing program (Bentham Books) which publishes works on diverse topics. Our book catalog features more than 1000 titles, with multiple titles published annually. We continue to broaden our publishing scope by expanding our books and journals catalog annually, to also include works relevant to established and emerging disciplines. Learn more about Bentham Books here:

Bentham Science offers a reliable publishing experience to authors from the initial manuscript submission till the final publication, through our state of the art journal management system which makes the publication process smooth and timely. With a productive association of 10,000 eminent scientists on the editorial boards, (including Nobel laureates as honorary advisors), Bentham Science provides high-quality peer review services to maintain their standards in publication.

In addition to publication opportunities for researchers, we also offer scholarly content licensing solutions, through our online store Eureka Select, to academic and corporate libraries interested in our journals and books. The online store also make our publications available for individual readers and publishers. Visit the online store, Eureka Select, here: EurekaSelect

Bentham Science is always open to new ideas and partnerships. If you are a researcher, librarian or distributor, and wish to work with us, please contact us at



Mission Statement


Bentham Science strives to promote excellence by publishing cutting-edge and insightful research in important new and emerging fields and making this new knowledge generated by world experts globally accessible.





Founded in 1992, Bentham Science Publishers started scientific publications initially with two journals, Current Medicinal Chemistry and Protein and Peptide Letters. Bentham gradually expanded its operations with new journals in science, technology, and medicine to provide academic researchers and industrial professionals with the latest high-quality research information regarding important and emerging fields of science and technology. The company has now grown into a multinational company with employees in the UAE, USA, Netherlands, Spain, India, and China. We also outsource our publishing services to several countries, including the US, UK, India, China, and Pakistan.

We currently publish more than 120 subscription/ hybrid journals in both electronic and printed formats and 38 Open Access journals. We have also published over 1300 books. Our journals and ebooks cover various disciplines in pharmaceutical research, engineering, technology, and social sciences. Furthermore, we became a member of COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) in 2014. Our journals are indexed by recognized indexing agencies. Information on journals' indexation by various indexing agencies can be viewed at

66 Bentham Science journals are indexed in the WoS (Journal Citation Reports 2023). View the latest announcement here:



Open Access Policy


What is Open Access?

When we use the term "open access" with reference to publication, we are describing its unrestricted availability to all. This means that all users have the freedom to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, link to, crawl for indexing, utilize as data for software, or engage in any other lawful activities, allowed under the relevant license, with the full texts of these articles.

Bentham Science Publishers accepts the Gold Open Access model, where publication costs are supported by an Article Processing Charge (APC). This APC charge is typically covered by the author's institution, funding body or the author him or herself. Authors retain the copyright of their work, while the articles are licensed by Bentham Science. The majority of Bentham Science Open Access articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0.

Gold Open Access allows immediate accessibility of content when it is published.



When you choose the Gold Open Access option, the benefits to authors and readers are:

  • FREE to View: Gold Open Access articles are freely available for viewing, downloading, and printing, in accordance with the relevant open access mandates.
  • Citations: The article has the potential to attract significantly higher citations as its content is freely accessible to readers irrespective of subscription to the journal.
  • Self-archiving: There are no embargoes imposed on the archiving of articles published under the Gold Open Access category. Authors are permitted to deposit such articles in institutional, non-commercial repositories, and personal websites immediately following their publication on the journal website.
  • Compliance with Funding Agency and Institutes: A comprehensive list of funding agencies, which authors can approach to secure funds for publishing their papers as open access, can be accessed on the respective journal websites.
  • Creative Commons License: Open Access Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted, distribution and reproduction in any medium, as long as the work is properly credited/attributed.

Authors Retain Copyright: The use of a Creative Commons License enables authors to retain copyright to their work.


Permission Requests

For all Gold Open Access articles, the authors are not required to obtain permission from Bentham Science for reuse. The copyright of most articles remains with the authors themselves, who have made the conscious decision to allow their articles to be reused under an open license, such as the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0). These licenses enable both reuse and adaptation of the content, as long as proper attribution is provided to the original authors and publisher. 

Occasionally, Bentham Science journals may include materials that have been republished with permission under a more restrictive license. In such cases, it will be clearly indicated and marked accordingly. If authors intend to reuse such materials, it may be necessary to seek permission directly from the copyright holder.


Rights and Permissions

Gold Open Access Contributions under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( This license grants you the following permissions:

  • Authors are allowed to share (copy and redistribute) the material in any medium or format.
  • Authors can adapt (Modify, transform, and build upon) the material for any purpose, including commercial purposes.
  • Under the Gold Open Access category, there are no restrictions on archiving articles. Authors are free to deposit such articles on institutional, non-commercial repositories, and personal websites immediately after they have been published on the journal website. This practice is permitted under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0).

To comply with the licensing terms, the authors must ensure the following:

  • Make correct attribution by giving appropriate credit to the original authors and publisher. Include a link to the license and indicate if any changes were made. The authors have the flexibility to choose a reasonable manner of attribution, but the authors should not imply that the licensor endorses you or your use.
  • Do not impose any additional restrictions. The authors are not permitted to apply legal terms or technological measures that would restrict others from doing anything that the license permits. Please adhere to these license terms when utilizing the material provided.



Guidelines for Authors



Authors are requested to electronically submit their papers to this journal for evaluation and submission at View Submission Instructions. The Manuscript Processing System (MPS) has been designed with the objective of ensuring step-by-step online processing and tracking of manuscripts for authors, editors and the publisher from submission to acceptance and final reproduction.

hrough the submission process, this website will guide authors through each stage. The text, tables, and artwork should be uploaded at ( in electronic format by the authors. However, the authors who are unable to provide an electronic version or who are facing other difficulties must contact the editorial office by emailing to discuss any alternatives. Submissions that do not adhere to these guidelines will unfortunately not be taken into consideration.

Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required to submit a Copyright Letter along with the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained.



The author's time is valuable and should not be wasted on research formatting. Free Format Submission makes it easier and faster to prepare text for submission.

When submitting to any Bentham journal, authors are not required to follow any formatting guidelines. When an article is accepted for publication, authors can submit it in the format of their choice, and Bentham will convert it into a journal-specific format for them.

If the submission is accepted for publication, Bentham will format it in accordance with the style and format of the journal.

For all online submissions, please provide soft copies of all the materials (main text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures/illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and chemical structures drawn in ChemDraw (CDX)/ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files, while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be included, embedded with all the figures/illustrations/tables/chemical structures etc. It is advisable that the document files related to a manuscript submission should always have the name of the corresponding author as part of the file name, i.e., Cilli MS text.doc, “Cilli MS Figure 1, etc.

It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables references and images, to ensure that they appear in proper format. References, figures, tables, structures, etc. should be referred in the text at the places where they are discussed first. Figure legends/captions should also provided.

A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by a system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding author. Any queries therein should be addressed to



The journal publishes peer-reviewed full-length review articles, research papers and drug clinical trial studies written in English. Single topic/thematic issues may also be considered for publication.


Single Topic Issues

These special issues are peer-reviewed and may contain invited or uninvited review/mini-review articles. A Single Topic Issue Editor will offer a short perspective and co-ordinate the solicitation of manuscripts between 3-5 (for a mini-thematic issue) to 6-10 (for a full-length thematic issue) from leading scientists. Authors interested in editing a single topic issue in an emerging field of outstanding developments in neurovascular and drug clinical trial studies may submit their proposal to the Editor-in-Chief at for consideration.

Conference Proceedings

For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at email for consideration.



Review Articles

The length of a published comprehensive review article is from 6000-10000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.


Mini-reviews should be 3000- 6000 words with 75 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Systematic Reviews

Systematic Reviews include systematic updates on review protocols, methods, research and results from all relevant fields for any studies and updates on already published issues. The total number of words for a published systematic review is from 4000 to 6000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses must be reported according to PRISMA guidelines; (

Registration of Systematic Reviews

Bentham Science Publishers supports retrospective registration of systematic reviews, in a suitable registry (such as PROSPERO). The registered systematic review must include the registration number as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Research Articles

Research articles should be of 4000-6000 words with 75 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Randomized Drug Clinical Trial Studies

Trial studies should be 4000 to 6000 words with 50 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.


Editorials are short papers on important topics related to the journal. The total number of words in an editorial should not exceed 1000 to 1500, and it should contain only 10-15 references. An abstract is not required. 


Commentaries present an analysis by scientists on different important issues related to the publications in the journal. Commentaries should contain less than 3000 words, including the abstract, main text, references, and figure legends. However, an abstract is not necessary.


A perspective provides a short overview of a research topic relevant to the field. The length of a published perspective ranges from 1500 to 1800 words, with 20 or more references, excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Industry News

Industry News should provide important developments in industries related to the scope of the Journal, that could be of interest to the readers. The length of the submission should be about 1000 words, and it should ideally have 10 or more references (abstract is not required).

Patent News

Patent News may present important information about recent important patents that have been granted, relevant to the scope of this journal. The length should be about 1000 words, and it should ideally have 10 or more references (abstract is not required).

There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article (Refer to Supplementary Material section).



The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.



It is advisable that authors prepare their manuscript using the template available on the Web, which will assist in preparation of the manuscript according to journal’s format. Download the Template.

For further details: Author Guidelines



Rights and Permissions


Authors who publish in Bentham Science print & online journals will transfer copyright to their work to Bentham Science Publishers. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Copyright Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright of their article is transferred to the publishers if and when the article is accepted for publication. Once submitted to the journal, the author will not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.

It is mandatory that a signed copyright letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed. The article should not contain any such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the copyright agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the copyright agreement. Copyright letter can be downloaded from the journal's Web site. Download the Copyright letter


Permission to Reuse Bentham Content

Bentham Science has collaborated with the Copyright Clearance Center to meet our customer’s licensing, besides rights & permission needs.

The Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink® service makes it faster and easier to secure permission from Bentham Science’s journal titles. Visit Journals by Title and locate the desired content. Then go to the article’s abstract and click on “Rights and Permissions” to open the RightsLink’s page. If authors can't find the content they are looking for or can't get the rights they need, please contact us at


Third-Party Permissions

Authors are responsible for managing the inclusion of third-party content as an author/editor of a work. We refer to 'third party content' as any work that authors haven't developed themselves and have copied or adapted from other sources. Text, figures, photographs, tables, screenshots, and other items may be included.

Unless the figure is in the public domain (copyright-free) or permitted for use under Creative Commons or other open licenses, the author must get permission from the copyright holder(s).

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless written permission has been obtained from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of the article for publication.


Open Access Articles

Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted distribution and reproduction in any medium, as long as the work is properly credited/attributed. For more details, please visit Open Access Policy





All potential conflicts of interest (competing interests) that could have a direct or indirect influence on the work must be disclosed by the authors. Even if an author does not have a conflict, disclosing affiliations and interests allows for a more comprehensive and open approach, which leads to a more accurate and objective evaluation of the work. Conflicts of interest, whether genuine or imagined, are a perspective to which the readers are entitled.

The publication of a conflict statement in the article itself, as well as the submission of the conflict disclosure form, is required for all types of papers. It is not necessarily the case that a monetary relationship with examination support or funding for counseling work is inappropriate. Even if the authors do not have any conflict of interest, they still need to provide a confirmation statement in their manuscripts, i.e., “The author(s) confirm(s) that there is no conflict of interest related to the manuscript”.


The following are some examples of potential conflicts of interest that are directly or indirectly related to the research:

Financial competing interests include (but are not limited to):

  • Type of support/grant number

  • Institutional Conflicts of Interest

  • Funds received by the author

  • Funds received by the institution

  • Travel allowances for the research

  • Funds received for article preparation and reviewing

  • Funds for conducting review activities

  • Support provided for article writing assistance, for drugs, equipment, etc

  • Paid lectures

  • Pending fund or grant

Financial conflicts of interest can be personal as well as institutional. Personal conflict of interest occurs when a contributor involved in the publication process either receives an amount of money or expects to receive some financial help (including any other financial benefits such as patents or stocks, gifts or services) that may impact the work related to a specific publication. More importantly, in academic research, such financial relationships can lead to institutional conflicts of interest (COIs) because the economic interests of the institution or institutional representatives may unsuitably affect the decision-making process.

An institutional conflict of interest arises in a situation when financial interests of an institution or any institutional official (e.g., investments held by the university in a company) have the potential to unduly influence the research conducted by its employees or students, or pose an unacceptable risk to human subjects. Such conflicts usually arise in a state of affairs where a research project directly offers assistance or a benefit to an external entity via evaluation, validation, trial or test of an invention, product, drug, service or technology, and the institution holds a financial interest with the external entity. Such financial interests incorporate, but are not limited to, receipt of licensing payments or royalties from the external entity, or ownership interest with the external entity. When human subjects are involved in any research project, and the institution supports such a financial interest, the conflict of interest is speculated to be unreasonable.


Non-financial competing interests include (but are not limited to):

In addition, interests other than monetary and any funding (non-financial interests) should be declared if they are relevant to readers. Personal relationships or conflicting interests directly or indirectly related to research, as well as professional interests or personal opinions that may impact your research, are examples of these.


Intellectual property, in basic terms, refers to any intangible property that is the result of creativity, such as patents, copyrights, etc. Similarly, this section seeks to know about copyright and patent (licensed patent, pending or issued) and any payment received for intellectual property, such as:

  • Patent

  • Licensed Patent

  • Issued Patent

  • Pending Patent

  • Royalties

  • Licensee

  • Remarks



All conflict of interest disclosure forms are collected by the corresponding author. It is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors in author collaborations when legal agreements for representation allow it. The templates of the form can be found here.

Disclosure form

ICMJE disclosure form

Before the reference list, the corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the article that reflects what is reported in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form (s). Author(s) may declare(s) names of reviewers who they think might have a potential conflict of interest; therefore, Editorial Office could avoid inviting such reviewers for an unbiased opinion.



Undisclosed conflict of interest cases before or after the publication of an article are dealt with as per the guidelines of COPE.

Undisclosed conflict of interest in a submitted article (View COPE guidelines).

Undisclosed conflict of interest in a published article (View COPE guidelines).

For more information on COIs, see the guidance from the ICMJE.



Bentham Science tries to conduct a transparent peer-review process with the help of the reviewers who do not have any conflict of interest with the authors. In this connection, reviewers who belong to the same institute or countries as authors are not invited to review manuscripts. However, it is not possible for the Editorial Office to be aware of all competing interests; therefore, it is expected from authors to submit:

List of reviewers who they think have a conflict of interest to ensure a transparent and unbiased review process.

The Editorial Office expects reviewers:

Not to accept manuscript review requests if they have any potential conflict of interest and inform the Editorial Office accordingly.

To decline review requests if they have recently published or submitted an article with any of the authors listed in the manuscript.

To inform the Editorial Office if they have any personal relationship with the authors or work in the same institutes as of authors, which could affect the review transparency.

To abstain from reviewing and informing the Editorial Office/Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editors about any scientific misconduct or fraud, plagiarism, conflict of interest, or any other unethical behavior related to the manuscript, which they found while reviewing it.

During the submission of review comments, reviewers are asked to reconfirm that they do not have any conflict of interest related to the article. After confirming the below statement, they can submit their comments.

“I hereby confirm that I don’t have any conflict of interest related to the manuscript”.

If, however, there are still any remaining interests, then reviewers must mention those in the ‘Confidential’ section of the review form.

Reviewers are not encouraged to contact authors directly regarding any of their conflicts of interest. Peer reviewers should follow journal's policies in situations they consider to represent a conflict to reviewing.



If reviewers intentionally undisclosed any conflict of interest, then they will be blacklisted for any future peer reviewing activity of the journal.

The Editorial Office always ensures that an author, if added after peer review activity of a manuscript, is not part of the reviewers list who have conducted a peer review of the same manuscript.



Editors must not review submitted manuscripts if they have any personal, professional or financial involvement/conflict of interest with the authors of the manuscript. Every participant involved in the peer review process, including editorial board members, reviewers, and editors, must declare any potential conflicts of interest to ensure a transparent and unbiased review activity.

Editors-in-Chief or Editors who are responsible for the initial and final decision should recuse themselves to review or take decisions on any manuscript that is written by authors affiliated to the same institute as of editor, or if they have been a family member, competitor, collaborator, or have published any manuscript in last 3 years with the authors associated with the manuscript. They can however nominate someone else on the Board who could provide a neutral opinion on the manuscript.

The Editorial office recommends editors to follow COPE and WAME guidelines to process such manuscripts which involves their personal relationship.


Manuscripts submission by an Editor/Editor-in-Chief

The initial and final decision on the manuscripts submitted by an Editor/Editor-in-Chief will be taken by any other member of the Board. The Editorial Office will identify members who do not have any potential conflict of interest with the Editor or Editor-in-Chief.



Peer Review Workflow


Collection Information