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    Review of 'Systemic antiviral immunization by virus-mimicking nanoparticles-decorated erythrocytes'

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    Systemic antiviral immunization by virus-mimicking nanoparticles-decorated erythrocytesCrossref
    Representation systemic antiviral immunization by erythrocyte-mediation to improve immune response
    Average rating:
        Rated 4 of 5.
    Level of importance:
        Rated 4 of 5.
    Level of validity:
        Rated 4 of 5.
    Level of completeness:
        Rated 4 of 5.
    Level of comprehensibility:
        Rated 3 of 5.
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    Systemic antiviral immunization by virus-mimicking nanoparticles-decorated erythrocytes

    New vaccine technologies are urgently needed to produce safe and effective vaccines in a more timely manner to prevent future infectious disease pandemics. Here, we describe erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization, a versatile vaccination strategy that boosts antiviral immune responses by using erythrocytes decorated with virus-mimetic nanoparticles. This work suggests an effective new approach to developing vaccines against severe infectious diseases. New vaccine technologies are urgently needed to produce safe and effective vaccines in a more timely manner to prevent future infectious disease pandemics. Here, we describe erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization, a versatile vaccination strategy that boosts antiviral immune responses by using erythrocytes decorated with virus-mimetic nanoparticles carrying a viral antigen and a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As a proof of concept, polydopamine nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple in situ polymerization in which the nanoparticles were conjugated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit and the TLR7/8 agonist R848. The resulting SARS-CoV-2 virus-mimetic nanoparticles were attached to erythrocytes via catechol groups on the nanoparticle. Erythrocytes naturally home to the spleen and interact with the immune system. Injection of the nanoparticle-decorated erythrocytes into mice resulted in greater maturation and activation of antigen-presenting cells, humoral and cellular immune responses in the spleen, production of S1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and systemic antiviral T cell responses than a control group treated with the nanoparticles alone, with no significant negative side effects. These results show that erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization using viral antigen- and TLR agonist-presenting polydopamine nanoparticles-a generalizable method applicable to many viral infections-is effective new approach to developing vaccines against severe infectious diseases.
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      Review information

      10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-MATSCI.A8418322.v1.RKONPF

      This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

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      This is a nice work done by the authors. I have couple of suggestions to the authors to improve the manuscript.

      1. During self polymerization of dopamine, whether there will be any H2O2 generation? if so how much effect it will have on the mechanism?

      2. In the introduction, authors should try to mention rationale of using dopamine a little biot more to help resesarch having more ideas on the approach.

      3. Why the shape of figure 2 and 3 are different?

      4. A seperate section of discussion and conclusion would be good to direct readers on important things. Most of the statement in the conslusion are matching with discussion rather than as concluding remarks.

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