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    Review of '<i>“Public Religion” and the Pancasila-Based State of Indonesia. An Ethical and Sociological Analysis</i>, by Benyamin Fleming Intan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. ISBN-13: 9780820476032, 277 pp., hb, $67.95'

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    <i>“Public Religion” and the Pancasila-Based State of Indonesia. An Ethical and Sociological Analysis</i>, by Benyamin Fleming Intan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. ISBN-13: 9780820476032, 277 pp., hb, $67.95Crossref
    Indonesia needs scientific studies of the Pancasila, and Cipriani cared about it
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    “Public Religion” and the Pancasila-Based State of Indonesia. An Ethical and Sociological Analysis, by Benyamin Fleming Intan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. ISBN-13: 9780820476032, 277 pp., hb, $67.95

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      Review information

      10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-UNCAT.AHO4JB.v1.RFTGCH

      This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

      Review text

      When searching for articles with the keyword "Pancasila" in ScienceOpen, I only found 7 articles in peer-reviewed publications in the period 1981-2016, namely:

       

      1. Pemuda Pancasila: The Last Loyalist Free Men of Suharto's Order? - Loren Ryter (1998)
      2. “Public Religion” and the Pancasila-Based State of Indonesia. An Ethical and Sociological Analysis, by Benyamin Fleming Intan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. ISBN-13: 9780820476032, 277 pp.  - Roberto Cipriani (2009)
      3. Symbolic Meaning of Money, Self-esteem, and Identification with Pancasila Values - Eko A. Meinarno, Wahyu Rahardjo, Juneman Abraham (2012)
      4. Critical Analysis on Accounting Information Based On Pancasila Value - Dwiyani Sudaryanti, Eko Sukoharsono, Zaki Baridwan, Aji D. Mulawarman (2015)
      5. The Economics of Ekonomi Pancasila - Peter McCawley (1982)
      6. Pancasila Economic and the Challenges of Globalization and Free Market In Indonesia - Aan Jaelani (2016)
      7. Pancasila The Indonesian State Ideology According to the New Order Government - Michael Morfit (1981)

      The fact was very surprising because it indicates that the literature on Pancasila (Five Principles, the basis of the Indonesian state) that can be accessed openly is still very lacking. This open access deficit is confirmed by a search on Google Scholar . Although the results of the retrieval resulted in 79,700 results, it is indeed quite rare for scientific publications on Pancasila to be able to download the full content. Meanwhile, Pancasila is (1) most often used as a political instrument to gain votes in the elections of the president and regional heads in Indonesia, (2) most often doubted by Indonesian youth, (3) most vulnerable to being trapped in jargonism, but also (4) most open to reinterpretation, (5) most wanted to be revitalized among young adults, as well as (6) the most expected to be embodied in Indonesia leaders and folks in solving Indonesia social problems, from religious terrorism, politics of identity game, poverty, social inequalities and conflicts, to nation disintegration potency (Fachrudin, 2017; Fuller, 2018; Jonathan, 2018; Sahana, 2018; The Jakarta Post, 2013).

      The article written by Roberto Cipriani was published in Implicit Religion, 12(2), 242-24. This article is a review of a book written by Benyamin Fleming Intan (2006). The first interesting thing is that both Cipriani and Intan are not Indonesians, but rather those who care to approach Pancasila by using the scientific approach and writing their thoughts in scientific journals.

      The strength of Cipriani's review is that he succeeded in capturing that Intan (1) highly appreciated the indigenous approach, by citing most the local literature (from Indonesia) rather than global literature, and (2) having a very positive attitude towards Pancasila, which he thought is able to facilitate the development of Indonesia democracy.

      In the 2000s, social media developed in Indonesia includes, among others, Friendster and Myspace (Zakaria, 2018), as well as YahooGroups and Yahoo Answers. Unfortunately, not many researchers have conducted studies on social representations about Pancasila developing through social media. Intan and Cipriani also "forgot" to discuss it. If we search through Google, it will be found that writings and discussions about Pancasila already exist, even quite a lot, so that they could be analyzed, for example:


      Back to today, if we use the Twitter's (one of the most popular social media today) search engine, we will find that Twitter has never been quiet from the word "Pancasila". This fact coexists with two other facts: First, Indonesia is among the top five most Twitter users in the world. Second, today's social media is a space of individual and collective memory formation and forgetfulness (Bartoletti, 2011). Through social media, we can find out our own memories about Pancasila. The thing to watch out for is that the memory can be distorted so that what recalled is the "false memory" (Loftus, 1996). Utilizing the psychology of memory, a number of people try to (re-)construct memories of the Pancasila through web sites (e.g., Fikr, 2017; Poer, 2017).

      It is time for Pancasila scientific study actors to penetrate into social media, trying to detect whether Pancasila still lives in Indonesians; and, if so, how the Pancasila lives and is lived. We should not discuss the Pancasila only at the philosophical level. We need to examine empirically how the representations of Pancasila contested on social media, and participate to continuously inspiring cultural practices in accordance with the authentic intentions of Pancasila --- as initiated by the founding fathers of the Indonesia nation --- through social media. Indonesia people need not wait until "hoaxes about the Pancasila" are rampant, before embracing science on Pancasila. The scientific study of Pancasila (e.g. Juneman, Putra,  Meinarno, 2012; Meinaro & Juneman, 2012) will make Pancasila unforgottable (in Sanskrit: Amerta Pancasila).

       

      References

      ---

      In Indonesian version:

      Ketika mencari artikel dengan kata kunci "Pancasila" di ScienceOpen, saya hanya menemukan 7 artikel dalam peer-reviewed publications dalam rentang waktu 1981-2016, yakni:


      1) Pemuda Pancasila: The Last Loyalist Free Men of Suharto's Order? - Loren Ryter (1998)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=84c70b88-ba64-4804-98bb-b84c22986847
      2) “Public Religion” and the Pancasila-Based State of Indonesia. An Ethical and Sociological Analysis, by Benyamin Fleming Intan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. ISBN-13: 9780820476032, 277 pp.  - Roberto Cipriani (2009)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=e0b58e80-98ea-42f5-a07d-da44aa1795b4
      3) Symbolic Meaning of Money, Self-esteem, and Identification with Pancasila Values - Eko A. Meinarno, Wahyu Rahardjo, Juneman Abraham (2012)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=831ef4f7-d79a-4059-96bb-4fbc43b90680
      4) Critical Analysis on Accounting Information Based On Pancasila Value - Dwiyani Sudaryanti, Eko Sukoharsono, Zaki Baridwan, Aji D. Mulawarman (2015)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=fdee87b6-27a4-4d2f-9183-f34439e31f50
      5) The Economics of Ekonomi Pancasila - Peter McCawley (1982)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=7194051d-f41a-44b2-bbbd-0bb1f2896730
      6) Pancasila Economic and the Challenges of Globalization and Free Market In Indonesia - Aan Jaelani (2016)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=57bf8f97-2ed9-4f2a-9ace-88324ecdaca8
      7) Pancasila The Indonesian State Ideology According to the New Order Government - Michael Morfit (1981)
      https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=50d9b1c0-5997-474d-a4d0-15361111187b

      Hal ini sangat mengejutkan karena mengindikasikan bahwa literatur mengenai Pancasila (Five Principles, dasar negara Indonesia) yang dapat diakses secara terbuka masih sangat kurang. Defisit akses terbuka ini terkonfirmasi dengan pencarian di Google Scholar https://scholar.google.co.id/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Pancasila&btnG= . Meskipun hasil pencarian menghasilkan 79.700 entri, memang cukup langka publikasi ilmiah mengenai Pancasila yang dapat diunduh isi penuhnya. Padahal, Pancasila paling sering digunakan sebagai instrumen politik untuk meraih suara dalam Pemilihan Kepala Negara maupun Kepala Daerah di Indonesia, paling sering diragukan efektivitasnya oleh kaum muda Indonesia, paling rentan terjebak dalam jargonisme, tetapi juga paling terbuka terhadap reinterpretasi, paling ingin direvitalisasi di kalangan anak muda, serta paling diharapkan pembadanannya dalam diri para pemimpin dan rakyat Indonesia dalam memecahkan permasalahan Indonesia, mulai dari terorisme religius, permainan politik identitas, kemiskinan, ketidaksetaraan dan konflik sosial, sampai dengan potensi disintegrasi bangsa (Fachrudin, 2017; Fuller, 2018; Jonathan, 2018; Sahana, 2018; The Jakarta Post, 2013).

      Artikel yang ditulis oleh Roberto Cipriani tersebut terbit dalam Implicit Religion, 12(2), 242-24  (https://journals.equinoxpub.com/index.php/IR/article/view/7333). Artikel ini merupakan sebuah review terhadap sebuah buku yang ditulis oleh Benyamin Fleming Intan (2006). Hal pertama yang menarik adalah bahwa baik Cipriani maupun Intan bukan merupakan orang Indonesia, tetapi justru mereka yang peduli untuk mendekati Pancasila dengan menggunakan pendekatan scientific dan menuliskan pemikiran mereka dalam sebuah jurnal ilmiah.

      Kekuatan dari review Cipriani adalah bahwa ia sukses menangkap bahwa Intan (1) sangat mengapresiasi pendekatan indigenous, dengan cara banyak mengutip literatur lokal (dari Indonesia sendiri) daripada literatur global, serta (2) memiliki sikap sangat positif terhadap Pancasila, yang mampu memfasilitasi perkembangan demokrasi Indonesia.

      Pada tahun 2000-an tersebut, media sosial yang berkembang di Indonesia, antara lain Friendster dan Myspace (Zakaria, 2018), serta  YahooGroups dan Yahoo Answers. Sayangnya, belum banyak penulis yang melakukan penelitian mengenai representasi sosial mengenai Pancasila yang berkembang melalui media sosial. Itan dan Cipriani juga "lupa" untuk mendalaminya. Bila kita mencari melalui Google, akan ditemukan bahwa tulisan dan diskusi tentang Pancasila sudah ada, bahkan cukup banyak, sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan analisis, misalnya:

      - Sudut Pandang Pancasila? (Perspective of Pancasila) - https://fr.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081214053921AAvtZle
      - Menurut anda apakah Pancasila adalah ideologi yang masih layak? - https://id.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110608071305AAXvqB5
      - Kesalahpahaman umat muslim dalam mengartikan sila pertama pancasila.? - https://id.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20130326215530AAqoVGw
      http://francmartinno.blog.friendster.com/2009/01/penerapan-nilai-nilai-pancasila/
      http://lion-messigit.blog.friendster.com/2008/05/risalah-bpupki/ 


      Kembali ke hari ini, jika kita menggunakan mesin pencari Twitter, salah satu media sosial yang paling populer dewasa ini, kita akan menemukan bahwa Twitter tidak pernah sepi dari kata Pancasila. Fakta ini berdampingan dengan dua fakta lain: Pertama, Indonesia termasuk lima besar negara pengguna Twitter terbanyak di dunia. Kedua, media sosial dewasa ini merupakan ruang pembentukan memori dan pelupaan perorangan maupun kolektif (Bartoletti, 2011). Melalui media sosial, kita dapat mengetahui ingatan-ingatan kita sendiri mengenai Pancasila. Hal yang perlu diwaspadai adalah bahwa ingatan dapat disimpangkan sehingga yang muncul adalah "ingatan palsu" (Loftus, 1996). Memanfaatkan psikologi ingatan tersebut, sejumlah orang mencoba dengan caranya me(re-)konstruksi ingatan tentang Pancasila melalui media situs web (misalnya; Fikr, 2017; Poer, 2017). 

      Sudah saatnya diadakan studi-studi ilmiah mengenai Pancasila merambah ke media sosial, mencoba untuk mendeteksi apakah Pancasila masih hidup di tengah-tengah orang Indonesia, dan apabila ya, bagaimana Pancasila itu hidup, dihidupi, dan dihidupkan. Jangan lagi kita membicarakan Pancasila hanya pada tingkat filosofis. Kita perlu mencermati secara empiris bagaimana representasi-representasi mengenai Pancasila berkontestasi di media sosial, serta berpartisipasi untuk terus-menerus meng-kultural-kan intensi otentik dari Pancasila---sebagaimana digagas oleh para pendiri bangsa Indonesia---melalui media sosial. Bangsa Indonesia tidak perlu menunggu sampai "hoaks mengenai Pancasila" merajalela.  Studi ilmiah Pancasila membuat Pancasila tidak terlupakan (dalam bahasa Sansekerta: Amerta Pancasila).
       

      Comments

      Correction:

      Benyamin Fleming Intan is an Indonesian. Now, he teaches at a Christian Theology college, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional. Ref: http://sinta2.ristekdikti.go.id/authors/detail?id=6117857&view=overview

       

      Koreksi:

      Benyamin Fleming Intan adalah orang Indonesia. Sekarang ia merupakan seorang dosen di Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Reformed Injili Internasional.

       

      Juneman Abraham

      2018-12-31 01:01 UTC
      +1

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