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      Documento de consenso sobre el manejo de la patología renal en pacientes con infección por VIH

      Nefrología (Madrid)

      Sociedad Española de Nefrología

      HIV, Chronic kidney disease, Renal function, Renal failure, Tenofovir, Renal toxicity, Antiretroviral therapy, Renal transplantation, Sida, VIH, Enfermedad renal crónica, Función renal, Insuficiencia renal, Toxicidad renal, Fármacos antirretrovirales, Trasplante renal, AIDS

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: Actualizar las recomendaciones sobre la evaluación y el manejo de la afectación renal en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Métodos: Este documento ha sido consensuado por un panel de expertos del Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA) de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC), de la Sociedad Española de Nefrología (S.E.N.) y de la Sociedad Española de Química Clínica y Patología Molecular (SEQC). Para la valoración de la calidad de la evidencia y la graduación de las recomendaciones se ha utilizado el sistema Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Resultados: La evaluación renal debe incluir la medida de la concentración sérica de creatinina, la estimación del filtrado glomerular (ecuación chronic kidney disease epidemiological collaboration [CKD-EPI]), la medida del cociente proteína/creatinina en orina y un sedimento urinario. El estudio básico de la función tubular ha de incluir la concentración sérica de fosfato y la tira reactiva de orina (glucosuria). En ausencia de alteraciones, el cribado será anual. En pacientes tratados con tenofovir o con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC), se recomienda una evaluación más frecuente. Se debe evitar el uso de antirretrovirales potencialmente nefrotóxicos en pacientes con ERC o factores de riesgo para evitar su progresión. En este documento se revisan las indicaciones de derivación del paciente a Nefrología y las de la biopsia renal, así como las indicaciones y la evaluación y el manejo del paciente en diálisis o del trasplante renal. Conclusiones: La función renal debe monitorizarse en todos los pacientes con infección por el VIH y este documento pretende optimizar la evaluación y el manejo de la afectación renal.

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          Most cited references 522

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          Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, a benefit of statins in such patients who are undergoing hemodialysis has not been proved. We conducted an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial involving 2776 patients, 50 to 80 years of age, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. We randomly assigned patients to receive rosuvastatin, 10 mg daily, or placebo. The combined primary end point was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary end points included death from all causes and individual cardiac and vascular events. After 3 months, the mean reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels was 43% in patients receiving rosuvastatin, from a mean baseline level of 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). During a median follow-up period of 3.8 years, 396 patients in the rosuvastatin group and 408 patients in the placebo group reached the primary end point (9.2 and 9.5 events per 100 patient-years, respectively; hazard ratio for the combined end point in the rosuvastatin group vs. the placebo group, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.11; P=0.59). Rosuvastatin had no effect on individual components of the primary end point. There was also no significant effect on all-cause mortality (13.5 vs. 14.0 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.51). In patients undergoing hemodialysis, the initiation of treatment with rosuvastatin lowered the LDL cholesterol level but had no significant effect on the composite primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00240331.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572), a once-daily, unboosted integrase inhibitor, was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Dolutegravir, in combination with abacavir-lamivudine, may provide a simplified regimen. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study involving adult participants who had not received previous therapy for HIV-1 infection and who had an HIV-1 RNA level of 1000 copies per milliliter or more. Participants were randomly assigned to dolutegravir at a dose of 50 mg plus abacavir-lamivudine once daily (DTG-ABC-3TC group) or combination therapy with efavirenz-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF)-emtricitabine once daily (EFV-TDF-FTC group). The primary end point was the proportion of participants with an HIV-1 RNA level of less than 50 copies per milliliter at week 48. Secondary end points included the time to viral suppression, the change from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count, safety, and viral resistance. A total of 833 participants received at least one dose of study drug. At week 48, the proportion of participants with an HIV-1 RNA level of less than 50 copies per milliliter was significantly higher in the DTG-ABC-3TC group than in the EFV-TDF-FTC group (88% vs. 81%, P=0.003), thus meeting the criterion for superiority. The DTG-ABC-3TC group had a shorter median time to viral suppression than did the EFV-TDF-FTC group (28 vs. 84 days, P<0.001), as well as greater increases in CD4+ T-cell count (267 vs. 208 per cubic millimeter, P<0.001). The proportion of participants who discontinued therapy owing to adverse events was lower in the DTG-ABC-3TC group than in the EFV-TDF-FTC group (2% vs. 10%); rash and neuropsychiatric events (including abnormal dreams, anxiety, dizziness, and somnolence) were significantly more common in the EFV-TDF-FTC group, whereas insomnia was reported more frequently in the DTG-ABC-3TC group. No participants in the DTG-ABC-3TC group had detectable antiviral resistance; one tenofovir DF-associated mutation and four efavirenz-associated mutations were detected in participants with virologic failure in the EFV-TDF-FTC group. Dolutegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine had a better safety profile and was more effective through 48 weeks than the regimen with efavirenz-tenofovir DF-emtricitabine. (Funded by ViiV Healthcare; SINGLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01263015 .).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                S0211-69952014000800001
                10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2014.Jul.12674

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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