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      Recognition of RNA N6-methyladenosine by IGF2BP proteins enhances mRNA stability and translation

      Nature cell biology
      Springer Nature

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          m(6)A RNA methylation is regulated by microRNAs and promotes reprogramming to pluripotency.

          N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) has been recently identified as a conserved epitranscriptomic modification of eukaryotic mRNAs, but its features, regulatory mechanisms, and functions in cell reprogramming are largely unknown. Here, we report m(6)A modification profiles in the mRNA transcriptomes of four cell types with different degrees of pluripotency. Comparative analysis reveals several features of m(6)A, especially gene- and cell-type-specific m(6)A mRNA modifications. We also show that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate m(6)A modification via a sequence pairing mechanism. Manipulation of miRNA expression or sequences alters m(6)A modification levels through modulating the binding of METTL3 methyltransferase to mRNAs containing miRNA targeting sites. Increased m(6)A abundance promotes the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to pluripotent stem cells; conversely, reduced m(6)A levels impede reprogramming. Our results therefore uncover a role for miRNAs in regulating m(6)A formation of mRNAs and provide a foundation for future functional studies of m(6)A modification in cell reprogramming.
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            Movement of eukaryotic mRNAs between polysomes and cytoplasmic processing bodies.

            Eukaryotic cells contain nontranslating messenger RNA concentrated in P-bodies, which are sites where the mRNA can be decapped and degraded. We present evidence that mRNA molecules within yeast P-bodies can also return to translation. First, inhibiting delivery of new mRNAs to P-bodies leads to their disassembly independent of mRNA decay. Second, P-bodies decline in a translation initiation-dependent manner during stress recovery. Third, reporter mRNAs concentrate in P-bodies when translation initiation is blocked and resume translation and exit P-bodies when translation is restored. Fourth, stationary phase yeast have large P-bodies containing mRNAs that reenter translation when growth resumes. The reciprocal movement of mRNAs between polysomes and P-bodies is likely to be important in the control of mRNA translation and degradation. Moreover, the presence of related proteins in P-bodies and maternal mRNA storage granules suggests this mechanism is widely adapted for mRNA storage.
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              A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development.

              Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) that exhibit multiple attachments to the 5' UTR from the translationally regulated IGF-II leader 3 mRNA but are unable to bind to the 5' UTR from the constitutively translated IGF-II leader 4 mRNA. IMPs contain the unique combination of two RNA recognition motifs and four hnRNP K homology domains and are homologous to the Xenopus Vera and chicken zipcode-binding proteins. IMP localizes to subcytoplasmic domains in a growth-dependent and cell-specific manner and causes a dose-dependent translational repression of IGF-II leader 3 -luciferase mRNA. Mouse IMPs are produced in a burst at embryonic day 12.5 followed by a decline towards birth, and, similar to IGF-II, IMPs are especially expressed in developing epithelia, muscle, and placenta in both mouse and human embryos. The results imply that cytoplasmic 5' UTR-binding proteins control IGF-II biosynthesis during late mammalian development.
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                Journal
                10.1038/s41556-018-0045-z
                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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