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      Use of Collateral Sensitivity Networks to Design Drug Cycling Protocols That Avoid Resistance Development

      Science translational medicine

      American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

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          Most cited references 28

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          Challenges of antibacterial discovery.

          The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort.
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            Sequential application of anticancer drugs enhances cell death by rewiring apoptotic signaling networks.

            Crosstalk and complexity within signaling pathways and their perturbation by oncogenes limit component-by-component approaches to understanding human disease. Network analysis of how normal and oncogenic signaling can be rewired by drugs may provide opportunities to target tumors with high specificity and efficacy. Using targeted inhibition of oncogenic signaling pathways, combined with DNA-damaging chemotherapy, we report that time-staggered EGFR inhibition, but not simultaneous coadministration, dramatically sensitizes a subset of triple-negative breast cancer cells to genotoxic drugs. Systems-level analysis-using high-density time-dependent measurements of signaling networks, gene expression profiles, and cell phenotypic responses in combination with mathematical modeling-revealed an approach for altering the intrinsic state of the cell through dynamic rewiring of oncogenic signaling pathways. This process converts these cells to a less tumorigenic state that is more susceptible to DNA damage-induced cell death by reactivation of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway whose function is suppressed in the oncogene-addicted state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The competitive cost of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

              Mathematical models predict that the future of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic will depend on the fitness cost of drug resistance. We show that in laboratory-derived mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampin resistance is universally associated with a competitive fitness cost and that this cost is determined by the specific resistance mutation and strain genetic background. In contrast, we demonstrate that prolonged patient treatment can result in multidrug-resistant strains with no fitness defect and that strains with low- or no-cost resistance mutations are also the most frequent among clinical isolates.
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                Journal
                10.1126/scitranslmed.3006609

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