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      The Mediterranean Today. Stability, Instability, Orientations. A first rapid excursus

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          Abstract

          A quick trip to some Mediterranean countries shows significant disparities, situations of inequality, different religious preferences, and struggling minority populations. The dream of a Mediterranean crossroads of cultures, which has taken up so much space in our past, seems today to retreat-- leaving behind a sea that has become a kind of hard border, difficult to cross for many men, women, children, who too often have lost their lives. The European Union prefers to defend its own borders from migrants and also from possible asylum seekers. It defends itself, and the Mediterranean is an important pawn in these actions, from the flows of arrivals from Africa, viz. the role of Libya, from which people escape the Syrian tragedy. For this purpose, they use countries like Greece and Turkey. A notable reversal for Italy in particular, an Italy that experienced first-hand migratory phenomena.

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          Intercultural and Interreligious Communication in the Balkan

          The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?
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            Albania: a nation of unique inter-religious tolerance and steadfast aspirations for EU integration

            Religious freedom has been always considered as a strong indicator democracy and institutional set up in a country. Ex- communist countries in their efforts to set up a state of law and foster democracy, particularly, are more sensible toward indicators such as religious freedom, tolerance and diversity considering them strong components of their social tissue necessary to set up a functional democracy. Their past legacy and history, are strong factors influencing their present and future. Analyzing the past, present and future of a country’s religiosity, religious freedom and tolerance, represent a valid contribution not only in terms of social assessment. They also compound a first layer for policies and strategies to create open societies and reinforce the institutional set up and rule of law. Albania, among these countries, represents a very unique case of variation in attitudes and relation toward religion along history. But a strong tolerant component characterizes the overall perception and behavior toward religious diversity. A historic, politic and social analysis of the Albanian case of religious tolerance and co-existence, necessary to understand the real western inspiration of the country and its democracy’s future, is the biggest contribution of this paper.
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              Albania and the teaching of religion in schools

              Multiculturalism and the new multi religious social realities are becoming dominant dimensions of today’s world. The huge changes in the social tissue of those societies, which up to now had an established dominant culture and religious affiliation, made them now face more than the effects of migrant flows, which inevitably causes confrontations of cultures and believes. The clash of civilizations, which have been so accurately predicted, took different forms of confrontation by giving floor to extremism into its organized form: an explosion of terrorism. By considering the strong connections between poverty and lack of education as an extremism cradle, many researchers consider the inclusion of the subjects related to the history and culture of religions as a strategy to reduce cultural and religious conflict as well as extremist behavior and the bases of terrorism, by increasing information and knowledge about religion starting from early teen years. Albania, a country known for its religious tolerance, is one of those countries which’ decision makers in education actually share this point of view and is going to start a project by including a module of limited hours of teaching in medium and high school students. The paper makes an analysis of the potential effects this might have considering its application related to the initial purposes of the project, by introducing the case of Italy and its strategy of religious education over the years as a comparative tool in order to analyze and predict the potential outcomes of this intent, by considering the national background of Albania and some specific learning traits and outcomes on such topics related to age and cultural set up.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Academicus : International Scientific Journal
                Academicus Journal
                01 January 2020
                : MMXX
                : 21
                : 9-19
                Article
                2b6b13b8db364b448973a013459ba755
                10.7336/academicus.2020.21.01
                d61e064f-efe9-4d72-a119-491978554898

                Distributed under the terms of the https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/, which permits noncommercial use and distribution in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited, and the original work is not modified.

                History
                Categories
                Social Sciences
                H
                Economics as a science
                HB71-74

                Sociology,Political science,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Law,Philosophy,Economics
                mediterranean; religious beliefs; inequalities; asylum seekers and migrants; shipwrecks; refusals and denials of entry

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