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      Complement and viral pathogenesis

      Virology

      Elsevier BV

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          Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus

          Spike (S) proteins of coronaviruses, including the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), associate with cellular receptors to mediate infection of their target cells 1,2 . Here we identify a metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) 3,4 , isolated from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-permissive Vero E6 cells, that efficiently binds the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV S protein. We found that a soluble form of ACE2, but not of the related enzyme ACE1, blocked association of the S1 domain with Vero E6 cells. 293T cells transfected with ACE2, but not those transfected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 receptors, formed multinucleated syncytia with cells expressing S protein. Furthermore, SARS-CoV replicated efficiently on ACE2-transfected but not mock-transfected 293T cells. Finally, anti-ACE2 but not anti-ACE1 antibody blocked viral replication on Vero E6 cells. Together our data indicate that ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV. Supplementary information The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nature02145) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis.

            Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.
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              Complement regulators and inhibitory proteins.

              The complement system is important for cellular integrity and tissue homeostasis. Complement activation mediates the removal of microorganisms and the clearance of modified self cells, such as apoptotic cells. Complement regulators control the spontaneously activated complement cascade and any disturbances in this delicate balance can result in damage to tissues and in autoimmune disease. Therefore, insights into the mechanisms of complement regulation are crucial for understanding disease pathology and for enabling the development of diagnostic tools and therapies for complement-associated diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1016/j.virol.2010.12.045

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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