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      Pulsatile Insulin Secretion: Detection, Regulation, and Role in Diabetes

      , , , , ,

      Diabetes

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          Insulin concentrations oscillate at a periodicity of 5-15 min per oscillation. These oscillations are due to coordinate insulin secretory bursts, from millions of islets. The generation of common secretory bursts requires strong within-islet and within-pancreas coordination to synchronize the secretory activity from the beta-cell population. The overall contribution of this pulsatile mechanism dominates and accounts for the majority of insulin release. This review discusses the methods involved in the detection and quantification of periodicities and individual secretory bursts. The mechanism by which overall insulin secretion is regulated through changes in the pulsatile component is discussed for nerves, metabolites, hormones, and drugs. The impaired pulsatile secretion of insulin in type 2 diabetes has resulted in much focus on the impact of the insulin delivery pattern on insulin action, and improved action from oscillatory insulin exposure is demonstrated on liver, muscle, and adipose tissues. Therefore, not only is the dominant regulation of insulin through changes in secretory burst mass and amplitude, but the changes may affect insulin action. Finally, the role of impaired pulsatile release in early type 2 diabetes suggests a predictive value of studies on insulin pulsatility in the development of this disease.

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          Most cited references 125

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              Impaired pulsatile secretion of insulin in relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

              In fasting nondiabetic subjects, insulin is secreted in regular pulses every 12 to 15 minutes, but patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes lack regular oscillatory insulin secretion. To investigate whether abnormal insulin oscillations are an early feature of diabetes, we studied 10 minimally glucose-intolerant first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and 10 controls matched for age and obesity. We performed a time-series analysis of fasting plasma insulin levels in blood samples obtained at 1-minute intervals for 150 minutes. Fasting plasma glucose levels were higher in the relatives than in the controls (mean +/- SD, 5.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.3 mmol per liter). Autocorrelation of pooled data showed no regular oscillatory activity in the relatives but a 13-minute cycle in the controls (r = 0.23, P less than 0.001). Similarly, Fourier transform analysis showed no significant peak in the relatives but the expected significant peak at 13 to 14 minutes in the controls (P less than 0.05). First-phase (0 to 10 minutes) insulin secretory responses to glucose administered intravenously were not significantly impaired in the relatives (geometric mean, 188 pmol per liter [26.2 mU per liter]; range of SD, +103 to -67 pmol per liter [+14.4 to -9.3 mU per liter]), as compared with the controls (geometric mean, 231 pmol per liter [32.2 mU per liter]; range of SD, +131 to -83 pmol per liter [+18.2 to -11.6 mU per liter]). We conclude that abnormal oscillatory insulin secretion may be an early phenomenon in the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                February 01 2002
                February 01 2002
                : 51
                : Supplement 1
                : S245-S254
                Article
                10.2337/diabetes.51.2007.S245
                © 2002

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