Blog
About

18
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Treatment of Patients with Cirrhosis.

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 38

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

          In patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, renal function frequently becomes impaired. This impairment is probably related to a reduction in effective arterial blood volume and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a study to determine whether plasma volume expansion with intravenous albumin prevents renal impairment and reduces mortality in these patients. We randomly assigned 126 patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to treatment with intravenous cefotaxime (63 patients) or cefotaxime and intravenous albumin (63 patients). Cefotaxime was given daily in dosages that varied according to the serum creatinine level, and albumin was given at a dose of 1.5 g per kilogram of body weight at the time of diagnosis, followed by 1 g per kilogram on day 3. Renal impairment was defined as nonreversible deterioration of renal function during hospitalization. The infection resolved in 59 patients in the cefotaxime group (94 percent) and 62 in the cefotaxime-plus-albumin group (98 percent) (P=0.36). Renal impairment developed in 21 patients in the cefotaxime group (33 percent) and 6 in the cefotaxime-plus-albumin group (10 percent) (P=0.002). Eighteen patients (29 percent) in the cefotaxime group died in the hospital, as compared with 6 (10 percent) in the cefotaxime-plus-albumin group (P=0.01); at three months, the mortality rates were 41 percent (a total of 26 deaths) and 22 percent (a total of 14 deaths), respectively (P=0.03). Patients treated with cefotaxime had higher levels of plasma renin activity than those treated with cefotaxime and albumin; patients with renal impairment had the highest values. In patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, treatment with intravenous albumin in addition to an antibiotic reduces the incidence of renal impairment and death in comparison with treatment with an antibiotic alone.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Beta-blockers to prevent gastroesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis.

            Nonselective beta-adrenergic blockers decrease portal pressure and prevent variceal hemorrhage. Their effectiveness in preventing varices is unknown. We randomly assigned 213 patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (minimal hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] of 6 mm Hg) to receive timolol, a nonselective beta-blocker (108 patients), or placebo (105 patients). The primary end point was the development of gastroesophageal varices or variceal hemorrhage. Endoscopy and HVPG measurements were repeated yearly. During a median follow-up of 54.9 months, the rate of the primary end point did not differ significantly between the timolol group and the placebo group (39 percent and 40 percent, respectively; P=0.89), nor were there significant differences in the rates of ascites, encephalopathy, liver transplantation, or death. Serious adverse events were more common among patients in the timolol group than among those in the placebo group (18 percent vs. 6 percent, P=0.006). Varices developed less frequently among patients with a baseline HVPG of less than 10 mm Hg and among those in whom the HVPG decreased by more than 10 percent at one year and more frequently among those in whom the HVPG increased by more than 10 percent at one year. Nonselective beta-blockers are ineffective in preventing varices in unselected patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension and are associated with an increased number of adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00006398.) Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Liver disease.

              Enteral nutrition (EN) by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and tube feeding (TF) offers the possibility to increase or to insure nutrient intake in case of insufficient oral food intake. The present guideline is intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of ONS and TF in patients with liver disease (LD). It was developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and is based on all relevant publications since 1985. The guideline was discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN by means of ONS is recommended for patients with chronic LD in whom undernutrition is very common. ONS improve nutritional status and survival in severely malnourished patients with alcoholic hepatitis. In patients with cirrhosis, TF improves nutritional status and liver function, reduces the rate of complications and prolongs survival. TF commenced early after liver transplantation can reduce complication rate and cost and is preferable to parenteral nutrition. In acute liver failure TF is feasible and used in the majority of patients.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                N. Engl. J. Med.
                The New England journal of medicine
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                1533-4406
                0028-4793
                Aug 25 2016
                : 375
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] From the Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (P.S.G.); and the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and the Indian Health Service, Northern Navajo Medical Center, Shiprock - both in New Mexico (B.A.R.).
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1504367
                27557303

                Comments

                Comment on this article