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      Recent Developments in Delivery, Bioavailability, Absorption and Metabolism of Curcumin: the Golden Pigment from Golden Spice

      Cancer Research and Treatment

      Korean Cancer Association

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          Regulation of survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells through modulation of inflammatory pathways by nutraceuticals.

          Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues today. For example, we now know that as many as 35% of all cancers can be prevented by dietary changes. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving the transformation, survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the tumor and may take up to 30 years. The pathways associated with this process have been linked to chronic inflammation, a major mediator of tumor progression. The human body consists of about 13 trillion cells, almost all of which are turned over within 100 days, indicating that 70,000 cells undergo apoptosis every minute. Thus, apoptosis/cell death is a normal physiological process, and it is rare that a lack of apoptosis kills the patient. Almost 90% of all deaths due to cancer are linked to metastasis of the tumor. How our diet can prevent cancer is the focus of this review. Specifically, we will discuss how nutraceuticals, such as allicin, apigenin, berberine, butein, caffeic acid, capsaicin, catechin gallate, celastrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, fisetin, flavopiridol, gambogic acid, genistein, plumbagin, quercetin, resveratrol, sanguinarine, silibinin, sulforaphane, taxol, gamma-tocotrienol, and zerumbone, derived from spices, legumes, fruits, nuts, and vegetables, can modulate inflammatory pathways and thus affect the survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the tumor. Various cell signaling pathways that are modulated by these agents will also be discussed.
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            Regulation of inflammation and redox signaling by dietary polyphenols.

            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in enhancing the inflammation through the activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors, and nuclear histone acetylation and deacetylation in various inflammatory diseases. Such undesired effects of oxidative stress have been found to be controlled by the antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects of dietary polyphenols such as curcumin (diferuloylmethane, a principal component of turmeric) and resveratrol (a flavonoid found in red wine). The phenolic compounds in fruits, vegetables, tea and wine are mostly derivatives, and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins, tocopherols, and phenolic acids. Polyphenols modulate important cellular signaling processes such as cellular growth, differentiation and host of other cellular features. In addition, they modulate NF-kappaB activation, chromatin structure, glutathione biosynthesis, nuclear redox factor (Nrf2) activation, scavenge effect of ROS directly or via glutathione peroxidase activity and as a consequence regulate inflammatory genes in macrophages and lung epithelial cells. However, recent data suggest that dietary polyphenols can work as modifiers of signal transduction pathways to elicit their beneficial effects. The effects of polyphenols however, have been reported to be more pronounced in vitro using high concentrations which are not physiological in vivo. This commentary discusses the recent data on dietary polyphenols in the control of signaling and inflammation particularly during oxidative stress, their metabolism and bioavailability.
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              Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals.

              Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from the spice turmeric (an essential component of curry powder), has been investigated most extensively as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Curcumin directly interacts with adipocytes, pancreatic cells, hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, and muscle cells. There, it suppresses the proinflammatory transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B, signal transducer and activators of transcription-3, and Wnt/beta-catenin, and it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Nrf2 cell-signaling pathways, thus leading to the downregulation of adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and the upregulation of adiponectin and other gene products. These curcumin-induced alterations reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and other symptoms linked to obesity. Other structurally homologous nutraceuticals, derived from red chili, cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, and ginger, also exhibit effects against obesity and insulin resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.4143/crt.2014.46.1.2

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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