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      Messing with the Sentinels—The Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus with Dendritic Cells

      Microorganisms

      MDPI

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          Abstract

          Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen as well as a frequent colonizer, threatening human health worldwide. Protection against S. aureus infection is challenging, as the bacteria have sophisticated strategies to escape the host immune response. To maintain equilibrium with S. aureus, both innate and adaptive immune effector mechanisms are required. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical players at the interface between the two arms of the immune system, indispensable for inducing specific T cell responses. In this review, we highlight the importance of DCs in mounting innate as well as adaptive immune responses against S. aureus with emphasis on their role in S. aureus-induced respiratory diseases. We also review what is known about mechanisms that S. aureus has adopted to evade DCs or manipulate these cells to its advantage.

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          Most cited references 140

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          The dendritic cell system and its role in immunogenicity.

           R Steinman (1990)
          Dendritic cells are a system of antigen presenting cells that function to initiate several immune responses such as the sensitization of MHC-restricted T cells, the rejection of organ transplants, and the formation of T-dependent antibodies. Dendritic cells are found in many nonlymphoid tissues but can migrate via the afferent lymph or the blood stream to the T-dependent areas of lymphoid organs. In skin, the immunostimulatory function of dendritic cells is enhanced by cytokines, especially GM-CSF. After foreign proteins are administered in situ, dendritic cells are a principal reservoir of immunogen. In vitro studies indicate that dendritic cells only process proteins for a short period of time, when the rate of synthesis of MHC products and content of acidic endocytic vesicles are high. Antigen processing is selectively dampened after a day in culture, but the capacity to stimulate responses to surface bound peptides and mitogens remains strong. Dendritic cells are motile, and efficiently cluster and activate T cells that are specific for stimuli on the cell surface. High levels of MHC class-I and -II products and several adhesins, such as ICAM-1 and LFA-3, likely contribute to these functions. Therefore dendritic cells are specialized to mediate several physiologic components of immunogenicity such as the acquisition of antigens in tissues, the migration to lymphoid organs, and the identification and activation of antigen-specific T cells. The function of these presenting cells in immunologic tolerance is just beginning to be studied.
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            The epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: a call to action for the medical community from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

            The ongoing explosion of antibiotic-resistant infections continues to plague global and US health care. Meanwhile, an equally alarming decline has occurred in the research and development of new antibiotics to deal with the threat. In response to this microbial "perfect storm," in 2001, the federal Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance released the "Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance; Part 1: Domestic" to strengthen the response in the United States. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) followed in 2004 with its own report, "Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic Discovery Stagnates, A Public Health Crisis Brews," which proposed incentives to reinvigorate pharmaceutical investment in antibiotic research and development. The IDSA's subsequent lobbying efforts led to the introduction of promising legislation in the 109 th US Congress (January 2005-December 2006). Unfortunately, the legislation was not enacted. During the 110 th Congress, the IDSA has continued to work with congressional leaders on promising legislation to address antibiotic-resistant infection. Nevertheless, despite intensive public relations and lobbying efforts, it remains unclear whether sufficiently robust legislation will be enacted. In the meantime, microbes continue to become more resistant, the antibiotic pipeline continues to diminish, and the majority of the public remains unaware of this critical situation. The result of insufficient federal funding; insufficient surveillance, prevention, and control; insufficient research and development activities; misguided regulation of antibiotics in agriculture and, in particular, for food animals; and insufficient overall coordination of US (and international) efforts could mean a literal return to the preantibiotic era for many types of infections. If we are to address the antimicrobial resistance crisis, a concerted, grassroots effort led by the medical community will be required.
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              Dendritic-cell control of pathogen-driven T-cell polarization.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.3390/microorganisms6030087

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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