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      The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: measuring the positive legacy of trauma.

      Journal of Traumatic Stress
      Adaptation, Psychological, Adolescent, Adult, Female, Gender Identity, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Life Change Events, Male, Personality Development, Personality Inventory, statistics & numerical data, Philosophy, Self Concept, Social Perception, Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic, diagnosis, psychology, rehabilitation

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          Abstract

          The development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, an instrument for assessing positive outcomes reported by persons who have experienced traumatic events, is described. This 21-item scale includes factors of New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and Appreciation of Life. Women tend to report more benefits than do men, and persons who have experienced traumatic events report more positive change than do persons who have not experienced extraordinary events. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory is modestly related to optimism and extraversion. The scale appears to have utility in determining how successful individuals, coping with the aftermath of trauma, are in reconstructing or strengthening their perceptions of self, others, and the meaning of events.

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          Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.

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            Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms.

            The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: reduction of risk impact, reduction of negative chain reactions, establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and opening up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.
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              The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.

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