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      Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism

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          Abstract

          Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8+ TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellular transport, including fatty-acid-binding proteins 4 and 5 (FABP4 and FABP5). We further show that T-cell-specific deficiency of Fabp4 and Fabp5 (Fabp4/Fabp5) impairs exogenous free fatty acid (FFA) uptake by CD8+ TRM cells and greatly reduces their long-term survival in vivo, while having no effect on the survival of central memory T (TCM) cells in lymph nodes. In vitro, CD8+ TRM cells, but not CD8+ TCM cells, demonstrated increased mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the presence of exogenous FFAs; this increase was not seen in Fabp4/Fabp5 double-knockout CD8+ TRM cells. The persistence of CD8+ TRM cells in the skin was strongly diminished by inhibition of mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation in vivo. Moreover, skin CD8+ TRM cells that lacked Fabp4/Fabp5 were less effective at protecting mice from cutaneous viral infection, and lung Fabp4/Fabp5 double-knockout CD8+ TRM cells generated by skin vaccinia virus (VACV) infection were less effective at protecting mice from a lethal pulmonary challenge with VACV. Consistent with the mouse data, increased FABP4 and FABP5 expression and enhanced extracellular FFA uptake were also demonstrated in human CD8+ TRM cells in normal and psoriatic skin. These results suggest that FABP4 and FABP5 have a critical role in the maintenance, longevity and function of CD8+ TRM cells, and suggest that CD8+ TRM cells use exogenous FFAs and their oxidative metabolism to persist in tissue and to mediate protective immunity.

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          Most cited references 13

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          T cell memory. A local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells.

          CD8 tissue-resident memory T (T(RM)) cells provide efficient local control of viral infection, but the role of CD4 T(RM) is less clear. Here, by using parabiotic mice, we show that a preexisting pool of CD4 T(RM) cells in the genital mucosa was required for full protection from a lethal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. Chemokines secreted by a local network of macrophages maintained vaginal CD4 T(RM) in memory lymphocyte clusters (MLCs), independently of circulating memory T cells. CD4 T(RM) cells within the MLCs were enriched in clones that expanded in response to HSV-2. Our results highlight the need for vaccine strategies that enable establishment of T(RM) cells for protection from a sexually transmitted virus and provide insights as to how such a pool might be established.
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            Resident memory T cells in human health and disease.

            Resident memory T cells are non-recirculating memory T cells that persist long-term in epithelial barrier tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, skin, and reproductive tract. Resident memory T cells persist in the absence of antigens, have impressive effector functions, and provide rapid on-site immune protection against known pathogens in peripheral tissues. A fundamentally distinct gene expression program differentiates resident memory T cells from circulating T cells. Although these cells likely evolved to provide rapid immune protection against pathogens, autoreactive, aberrantly activated, and malignant resident memory cells contribute to numerous human inflammatory diseases including mycosis fungoides and psoriasis. This review will discuss both the science and medicine of resident memory T cells, exploring how these cells contribute to healthy immune function and discussing what is known about how these cells contribute to human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
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              The antianginal drug trimetazidine shifts cardiac energy metabolism from fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation by inhibiting mitochondrial long-chain 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolase.

              Trimetazidine is a clinically effective antianginal agent that has no negative inotropic or vasodilator properties. Although it is thought to have direct cytoprotective actions on the myocardium, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is as yet undefined. In this study, we determined what effects trimetazidine has on both fatty acid and glucose metabolism in isolated working rat hearts and on the activities of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 100 microU/mL insulin, 3% albumin, 5 mmol/L glucose, and fatty acids of different chain lengths. Both glucose and fatty acids were appropriately radiolabeled with either (3)H or (14)C for measurement of glycolysis, glucose oxidation, and fatty acid oxidation. Trimetazidine had no effect on myocardial oxygen consumption or cardiac work under any aerobic perfusion condition used. In hearts perfused with 5 mmol/L glucose and 0.4 mmol/L palmitate, trimetazidine decreased the rate of palmitate oxidation from 488+/-24 to 408+/-15 nmol x g dry weight(-1) x minute(-1) (P<0.05), whereas it increased rates of glucose oxidation from 1889+/-119 to 2378+/-166 nmol x g dry weight(-1) x minute(-1) (P<0.05). In hearts subjected to low-flow ischemia, trimetazidine resulted in a 210% increase in glucose oxidation rates. In both aerobic and ischemic hearts, glycolytic rates were unaltered by trimetazidine. The effects of trimetazidine on glucose oxidation were accompanied by a 37% increase in the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation. No effect of trimetazidine was observed on glycolysis, glucose oxidation, fatty acid oxidation, or active pyruvate dehydrogenase when palmitate was substituted with 0.8 mmol/L octanoate or 1.6 mmol/L butyrate, suggesting that trimetazidine directly inhibits long-chain fatty acid oxidation. This reduction in fatty acid oxidation was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activity of the long-chain isoform of the last enzyme involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thiolase activity (IC(50) of 75 nmol/L). In contrast, concentrations of trimetazidine in excess of 10 and 100 micromol/L were needed to inhibit the medium- and short-chain forms of 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase, respectively. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and stimulation of glucose oxidation can protect the ischemic heart. Therefore, our data suggest that the antianginal effects of trimetazidine may occur because of an inhibition of long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase activity, which results in a reduction in fatty acid oxidation and a stimulation of glucose oxidation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                February 20 2017
                February 20 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nature21379
                28219080
                © 2017
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