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      Antigen delivery to dendritic cells shapes human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory responses to Staphylococcus aureus.

      PLoS Pathogens

      Public Library of Science (PLoS)

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          Abstract

          Intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus favors bacterial spread and chronic infections. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell memory against staphylococcal antigens. Notably, the latter could provide a missing link in our understanding of immune control of intracellular S. aureus. The analyses showed that pulsing of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) with native staphylococcal protein antigens induced release of Th2-associated cytokines and mediators linked to T regulatory cell development (G-CSF, IL-2 and IL-10) from both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus revealing a state of tolerance predominantly arising from preformed memory T cells. Furthermore, G-CSF was identified as a suppressor of CD8+ T cell-derived IFNγ secretion, thus confirming a tolerogenic role of this cytokine in the regulation of T cell responses to S. aureus. Nevertheless, delivery of in vitro transcribed mRNA-encoded staphylococcal antigens triggered Th1-biased responses, e.g. IFNγ and TNF release from both naïve and memory T cells. Collectively, our data highlight the potential of mRNA-adjuvanted antigen presentation to enable inflammatory responses, thus overriding the existing Th2/Treg-biased memory T cell response to native S. aureus antigens.

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          5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I.

          The structural basis for the distinction of viral RNA from abundant self RNA in the cytoplasm of virally infected cells is largely unknown. We demonstrated that the 5'-triphosphate end of RNA generated by viral polymerases is responsible for retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-mediated detection of RNA molecules. Detection of 5'-triphosphate RNA is abrogated by capping of the 5'-triphosphate end or by nucleoside modification of RNA, both occurring during posttranscriptional RNA processing in eukaryotes. Genomic RNA prepared from a negative-strand RNA virus and RNA prepared from virus-infected cells (but not from noninfected cells) triggered a potent interferon-alpha response in a phosphatase-sensitive manner. 5'-triphosphate RNA directly binds to RIG-I. Thus, uncapped 5'-triphosphate RNA (now termed 3pRNA) present in viruses known to be recognized by RIG-I, but absent in viruses known to be detected by MDA-5 such as the picornaviruses, serves as the molecular signature for the detection of viral infection by RIG-I.
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            Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group.

            The consequences of infection with Staphylococcus aureus can be severe, so strategies for prevention are important. We examined S. aureus isolates from blood and from nasal specimens to determine whether the organisms in the bloodstream originated from the patient's own flora. In a multicenter study, swabs for culture were obtained from the anterior nares of 219 patients with S. aureus bacteremia. A total of 723 isolates were collected and genotyped. In a second study, 1640 S. aureus isolates from nasal swabs were collected over a period of five years and then compared with isolates from the blood of patients who subsequently had S. aureus bacteremia. In the multicenter study of S. aureus bacteremia, the blood isolates were identical to those from the anterior nares in 180 of 219 patients (82.2 percent). In the second study, 14 of 1278 patients who had nasal colonization with S. aureus subsequently had S. aureus bacteremia. In 12 of these 14 patients (86 percent), the isolates obtained from the nares were clonally identical to the isolates obtained from blood 1 day to 14 months later. A substantial proportion of cases of S. aureus bacteremia appear to be of endogenous origin since they originate from colonies in the nasal mucosa. These results provide support for strategies to prevent systemic S. aureus infections by eliminating nasal carriage of S. aureus.
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              Immune evasion by staphylococci.

              Staphylococcus aureus can cause superficial skin infections and, occasionally, deep-seated infections that entail spread through the blood stream. The organism expresses several factors that compromise the effectiveness of neutrophils and macrophages, the first line of defence against infection. S. aureus secretes proteins that inhibit complement activation and neutrophil chemotaxis or that lyse neutrophils, neutralizes antimicrobial defensin peptides, and its cell surface is modified to reduce their effectiveness. The organism can survive in phagosomes, express polysaccharides and proteins that inhibit opsonization by antibody and complement, and its cell wall is resistant to lysozyme. Furthermore, S. aureus expresses several types of superantigen that corrupt the normal humoral immune response, resulting in anergy and immunosuppression. In contrast, Staphylococcus epidermidis must rely primarily on cell-surface polymers and the ability to form a biolfilm to survive in the host.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1371/journal.ppat.1006387
                28542586

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