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      Lack of beta-arrestin signaling in the absence of active G proteins

      Nature Communications

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 68

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          The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids.

          GPR41 and GPR43 are related members of a homologous family of orphan G protein-coupled receptors that are tandemly encoded at a single chromosomal locus in both humans and mice. We identified the acetate anion as an agonist of human GPR43 during routine ligand bank screening in yeast. This activity was confirmed after transient transfection of GPR43 into mammalian cells using Ca(2+) mobilization and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding assays and by coexpression with GIRK G protein-regulated potassium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Other short chain carboxylic acid anions such as formate, propionate, butyrate, and pentanoate also had agonist activity. GPR41 is related to GPR43 (52% similarity; 43% identity) and was activated by similar ligands but with differing specificity for carbon chain length, with pentanoate being the most potent agonist. A third family member, GPR42, is most likely a recent gene duplication of GPR41 and may be a pseudogene. GPR41 was expressed primarily in adipose tissue, whereas the highest levels of GPR43 were found in immune cells. The identity of the cognate physiological ligands for these receptors is not clear, although propionate is known to occur in vivo at high concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions.
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            Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligand.

            We evolved muscarinic receptors in yeast to generate a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated solely by a pharmacologically inert drug-like and bioavailable compound (clozapine-N-oxide). Subsequent screening in human cell lines facilitated the creation of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine GPCRs suitable for in vitro and in situ studies. We subsequently created lines of telomerase-immortalized human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells stably expressing all five family members and found that each one faithfully recapitulated the signaling phenotype of the parent receptor. We also expressed a G(i)-coupled designer receptor in hippocampal neurons (hM(4)D) and demonstrated its ability to induce membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing. We have thus devised a facile approach for designing families of GPCRs with engineered ligand specificities. Such reverse-engineered GPCRs will prove to be powerful tools for selectively modulating signal-transduction pathways in vitro and in vivo.
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              Structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors and significance for drug discovery.

              G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane-bound receptors and also the targets of many drugs. Understanding of the functional significance of the wide structural diversity of GPCRs has been aided considerably in recent years by the sequencing of the human genome and by structural studies, and has important implications for the future therapeutic potential of targeting this receptor family. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the five main human GPCR families--Rhodopsin, Secretin, Adhesion, Glutamate and Frizzled/Taste2--with a focus on gene repertoire, general ligand preference, common and unique structural features, and the potential for future drug discovery.
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                Journal
                10.1038/s41467-017-02661-3

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