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      A comparison of cigarette smoking profiles in opioid-dependent pregnant patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine.

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          Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking and agonist treatment in opioid-dependent pregnant patients. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which cigarette smoking profiles differentially changed during the course of pregnancy in opioid-dependent patients receiving either double-blind methadone or buprenorphine. Patients were participants in the international, randomized controlled Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Joint modelling of longitudinal measurements and event time data.

          This paper formulates a class of models for the joint behaviour of a sequence of longitudinal measurements and an associated sequence of event times, including single-event survival data. This class includes and extends a number of specific models which have been proposed recently, and, in the absence of association, reduces to separate models for the measurements and events based, respectively, on a normal linear model with correlated errors and a semi-parametric proportional hazards or intensity model with frailty. Special cases of the model class are discussed in detail and an estimation procedure which allows the two components to be linked through a latent stochastic process is described. Methods are illustrated using results from a clinical trial into the treatment of schizophrenia.
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            Power and sample size calculations

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              Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

              There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

                Author and article information

                Nicotine Tob. Res.
                Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                Jul 2013
                : 15
                : 7
                [1 ] Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. mchisol1@jhmi.edu


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