Blog
About

1,235
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    48
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

      The New England journal of medicine

      Blood Glucose, Adult, metabolism, Body Mass Index, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, epidemiology, prevention & control, Double-Blind Method, Energy Intake, Exercise, Female, Humans, Hypoglycemic Agents, adverse effects, therapeutic use, Incidence, Life Style, Male, Metformin, Middle Aged, Patient Compliance, Risk Factors, Weight Loss

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 15

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The Diabetes Prevention Program. Design and methods for a clinical trial in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

          The Diabetes Prevention Program is a randomized clinical trial testing strategies to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations and impaired glucose tolerance. The 27 clinical centers in the U.S. are recruiting at least 3,000 participants of both sexes, approximately 50% of whom are minority patients and 20% of whom are > or = 65 years old, to be assigned at random to one of three intervention groups: an intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on a healthy diet and exercise and two masked medication treatment groups--metformin or placebo--combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations. Participants are being recruited during a 2 2/3-year period, and all will be followed for an additional 3 1/3 to 5 years after the close of recruitment to a common closing date in 2002. The primary outcome is the development of diabetes, diagnosed by fasting or post-challenge plasma glucose concentrations meeting the 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria. The 3,000 participants will provide 90% power to detect a 33% reduction in an expected diabetes incidence rate of at least 6.5% per year in the placebo group. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular disease and its risk factors; changes in glycemia, beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, obesity, diet, physical activity, and health-related quality of life; and occurrence of adverse events. A fourth treatment group--troglitazone combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations--was included initially but discontinued because of the liver toxicity of the drug. This randomized clinical trial will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Pharmacologic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

            Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. An elevated rate of basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hyperinsulinemia is the primary cause of fasting hyperglycemia; after a meal, impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin and decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake by muscle contribute almost equally to postprandial hyperglycemia. In the United States, five classes of oral agents, each of which works through a different mechanism of action, are currently available to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The recently completed United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder that can be treated initially with oral agent monotherapy but will eventually require the addition of other oral agents, and that in many patients, insulin therapy will be needed to achieve targeted glycemic levels. In the UKPDS, improved glycemic control, irrespective of the agent used (sulfonylureas, metformin, or insulin), decreased the incidence of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy). This review examines the goals of antihyperglycemic therapy and reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, nonglycemic benefits, cost, and safety profile of each of the five approved classes of oral agents. A rationale for the use of these oral agents as monotherapy, in combination with each other, and in combination with insulin is provided.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Predictors of progression from impaired glucose tolerance to NIDDM: an analysis of six prospective studies.

              Risk factors associated with the progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to NIDDM were examined in data from six prospective studies. IGT and NIDDM were defined in all studies by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, and baseline risk factors were measured at the time of first recognition of IGT. The studies varied in size from 177 to 693 participants with IGT, and included men and women followed from 2 to 27 years after the recognition of IGT. Across the six studies, the incidence rate of NIDDM was 57.2/1,000 person-years and ranged from 35.8/1,000 to 87.3/1,000 person-years. Although baseline measures of fasting and 2-h postchallenge glucose levels were both positively associated with NIDDM incidence, incidence rates were sharply higher for those in the top quartile of fasting plasma glucose levels, but increased linearly with increasing 2-h postchallenge glucose quartiles. Incidence rates were higher among the Hispanic, Mexican-American, Pima, and Nauruan populations than among Caucasians. The effect of baseline age on NIDDM incidence rates differed among the studies; the rates did not increase or rose only slightly with increasing baseline age in three of the studies and formed an inverted U in three studies. In all studies, estimates of obesity (including BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference) were positively associated with NIDDM incidence. BMI was associated with NIDDM incidence independently of fasting and 2-h post challenge glucose levels in the combined analysis of all six studies and in three cohorts separately, but not in the three studies with the highest NIDDM incidence rates. Sex and family history of diabetes were generally not related to NIDDM progression. This analysis indicates that persons with IGT are at high risk and that further refinement of risk can be made by other simple measurements. The ability to identify persons at high risk of NIDDM should facilitate clinical trials in diabetes prevention.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                11832527
                1370926
                10.1056/NEJMoa012512

                Comments

                Comment on this article