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      The GABAA Receptor α2 Subunit Activates a Neuronal TLR4 Signal in the Ventral Tegmental Area that Regulates Alcohol and Nicotine Abuse

      Brain Sciences

      MDPI

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          Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB.

           M Montminy,  B Mayr (2001)
          The transcription factor CREB -- for 'cyclic AMP response element-binding protein' -- functions in glucose homeostasis, growth-factor-dependent cell survival, and has been implicated in learning and memory. CREB is phosphorylated in response to various signals, but how is specificity achieved in these signalling pathways?
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            CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer

            In atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease, deposition of the altered-self components oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and β-amyloid triggers a protracted sterile inflammatory response. Although chronic stimulation of the innate immune system is believed to underlie the pathology of these diseases, the molecular mechanisms of activation remain unclear. Here we show that oxidized LDL and β-amyloid trigger inflammatory signaling through a heterodimer of Toll-like receptors 4 and 6. Assembly of this novel heterodimer is regulated by signals from the scavenger receptor CD36, a common receptor for these disparate ligands. Our results identify CD36-TLR4-TLR6 activation as a common molecular mechanism by which atherogenic lipids and β-amyloid stimulate sterile inflammation and suggest a new model of TLR heterodimerization triggered by co-receptor signaling events.
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              The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors.

              Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to participate in the recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system, but it is not clear how a restricted family of receptors has the capacity to recognize the wide spectrum of TLR stimuli known to exist. We report here that two members of the TLR family, TLR2 and TLR6, together coordinate macrophage activation by Gram-positive bacteria and the yeast cell-wall particle, zymosan. TLR6 and TLR2 both are recruited to the macrophage phagosome, where they recognize peptidoglycan, a Gram-positive pathogen component. By contrast, TLR2 recognizes another component, bacterial lipopeptide, without TLR6. The requirement for TLR cooperation is supported by the finding that TLR2 needs a partner to activate tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in macrophages. Dimerization of the cytoplasmic domain of TLR2 does not induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in macrophages, whereas similar dimerization of the TLR4 cytoplasmic domain does. We show that the cytoplasmic domain of TLR2 can form functional pairs with TLR6 or TLR1, and this interaction leads to cytokine induction. Thus, the cytoplasmic tails of TLRs are not functionally equivalent, with certain TLRs requiring assembly into heteromeric complexes, whereas others are active as homomeric complexes. Finally, we show that TLR6, TLR2, and TLR1 are recruited to macrophage phagosomes that contain IgG-coated erythrocytes that do not display microbial components. The data suggest that TLRs sample the contents of the phagosome independent of the nature of the contents, and can establish a combinatorial repertoire to discriminate among the large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in nature.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.3390/brainsci8040072

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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