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      Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges.

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          Abstract

          Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) has been overlooked historically despite the high risks that countries face for its neglect. Some of the challenges faced by adolescents across the world include early pregnancy and parenthood, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortion, and high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Various political, economic, and sociocultural factors restrict the delivery of information and services; healthcare workers often act as a barrier to care by failing to provide young people with supportive, nonjudgmental, youth-appropriate services. FIGO has been working with partners and its member associations to break some of these barriers-enabling obstetricians and gynecologists to effect change in their countries and promote the ASRH agenda on a global scale.

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          Most cited references5

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          Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.

          Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women.
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            Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study.

            Whether the association between teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes could be explained by deleterious social environment, inadequate prenatal care, or biological immaturity remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether teenage pregnancy is associated with increased adverse birth outcomes independent of known confounding factors. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 3,886,364 nulliparous pregnant women <25 years of age with a live singleton birth during 1995 and 2000 in the United States. All teenage groups were associated with increased risks for pre-term delivery, low birth weight and neonatal mortality. Infants born to teenage mothers aged 17 or younger had a higher risk for low Apgar score at 5 min. Further adjustment for weight gain during pregnancy did not change the observed association. Restricting the analysis to white married mothers with age-appropriate education level, adequate prenatal care, without smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy yielded similar results. Teenage pregnancy increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes that is independent of important known confounders. This finding challenges the accepted opinion that adverse birth outcome associated with teenage pregnancy is attributable to low socioeconomic status, inadequate prenatal care and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy.
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              Patterns and Trends in Adolescents' Contraceptive Use and Discontinuation in Developing Countries and Comparisons With Adult Women

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Gynaecol Obstet
                International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
                Elsevier BV
                1879-3479
                0020-7292
                Oct 2015
                : 131 Suppl 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, London, UK. Electronic address: Jessica@figo.org.
                [2 ] International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, London, UK.
                Article
                S0020-7292(15)00085-5
                10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.02.006
                26433504
                0f483f46-fad3-4bd5-ab65-2febdafef034
                History

                HIV/AIDS,Abortion,Adolescents,Contraception,Pregnancy,Sexual and reproductive health

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