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      Identity statuses as developmental trajectories: a five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescents.

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          Abstract

          This study tested whether Marcia's original identity statuses of achievement, moratorium, early closure (a new label for foreclosure), and diffusion, can be considered identity status trajectories. That is, we examined whether these statuses are distinct and relatively stable, over-time configurations of commitment strength, levels of in-depth exploration of present commitments, and consideration of alternative commitments. The study examined identity development in a five-wave study of 923 early-to-middle (49.3% female) and 390 middle-to-late adolescents (56.7% female), covering the ages of 12-20. Using Latent class growth analysis (LCGA), the authors found that Marcia's (1966) statuses are indeed identity status trajectories. Two kinds of moratorium were also found: the classical moratorium and searching moratorium. Support was found for Waterman's developmental hypothesis of the identity status model: the number of achievers was significantly higher, and the number of diffusions lower, in middle-to-late adolescence than in early-to-middle adolescence. Females were more often in the advanced identity status trajectories, and stable differences were found between the trajectories in psychosocial adjustment. Study findings highlight that identity formation should be conceptualized as an over-time process.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Emerging adulthood. A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties.

           J Arnett (2000)
          Emerging adulthood is proposed as a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25. A theoretical background is presented. Then evidence is provided to support the idea that emerging adulthood is a distinct period demographically, subjectively, and in terms of identity explorations. How emerging adulthood differs from adolescence and young adulthood is explained. Finally, a cultural context for the idea of emerging adulthood is outlined, and it is specified that emerging adulthood exists only in cultures that allow young people a prolonged period of independent role exploration during the late teens and twenties.
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            Toward a Process Model of Identity Formation

             H Grotevant (1987)
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              Capturing ruminative exploration: Extending the four-dimensional model of identity formation in late adolescence

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Youth Adolesc
                Journal of youth and adolescence
                Springer Nature
                1573-6601
                0047-2891
                Aug 2012
                : 41
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Research Centre Adolescent Development, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.140, 3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands. w.meeus@uu.nl
                Article
                10.1007/s10964-011-9730-y
                3394234
                22089632

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