Chironomus sokolovae Istomina, Kiknadze et Siirin, 1999 (Diptera, Chironomidae) is recorded from Mongolia for the first time. Eleven banding sequences determined in the Mongolian population were previously known from Altai and Yenisei populations: sokA1, sokB1, sokB2, sokC1, sokC2, sokD1, sokD2, sokE1, sokF1, sokF2 and sokG1. The additional B-chromosomes are absent. DNA-barcoding of COI gene was carried out for this species for the first time. The phylogenetic tree estimated by Bayesian inference showed a high similarity of the studied species with Ch. acutiventris Wülker, Ryser et Scholl, 1983 from the Chironomus obtusidens-group. The estimated genetic distance K2P between Ch. sokolovae and Ch. acutiventris is much lower (0.38%) than the commonly accepted threshold of 3% for species of genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Our results show that the accepted cytogenetic criteria of species level in the genus Chironomus are more in accordance with morphological ones of the same level, than with molecular-genetic criteria accepted for species COI genetic distance.