Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae switch from a yeast to a filamentous form. In Saccharomyces, this switch is controlled by two regulatory proteins, Ste12p and Phd1p. Single-mutant strains, ste12/ste12 or phd1/phd1, are partially defective, whereas the ste12/ste12 phd1/phd1 double mutant is completely defective in filamentous growth and is noninvasive. The equivalent cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant in Candida (Cph1p is the Ste12p homolog and Efg1p is the Phd1p homolog) is also defective in filamentous growth, unable to form hyphae or pseudohyphae in response to many stimuli, including serum or macrophages. This Candida cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1 double mutant, locked in the yeast form, is avirulent in a mouse model.