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      Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

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          Abstract

          We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

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          Most cited references126

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          Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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            The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

            Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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              A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Front Psychiatry
                Frontiers in psychiatry
                Frontiers Media SA
                1664-0640
                1664-0640
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Psychobiology, Psychology Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) , Madrid , Spain.
                [2 ] Department of Psychobiology, Psychology Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Madrid, Spain; Clinical Management of Mental Health Unit, Biomedical Research Institute of Málaga, Regional University Hospital of Málaga (Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Salud Mental, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga - IBIMA), Málaga, Spain.
                [3 ] Istituto de Investigación i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid , Madrid , Spain.
                Article
                10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00175
                5076301
                27822187
                3dda905e-ab82-48c1-93c9-f7712eaf62ef
                History

                addiction,behavioral addiction,cell-phone addiction,dependence,internet addiction

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